Annotated Bibliography & Other Sources

—Work in Progress—

Almay, Mirja, Marketta Luutonen, and Kyllikki Mitronen. Sydamenlammittaja ja tikkuripaita: Perinteisia neuleita Suomesta ja Eestista; Kustannusosakeyhtio: pgs. 5, 39, 93-95, English Summary 145-150. Helsinki: Tammi, 1993. ISBN 951-31-0089-9.

Finnish; While mostly concentrating on knitting in Finland and Estonia, and some crochet, this book does include a small section on nalbinding with directions, in Finnish, for UUOOUU/OOUUOOO. The English summary is quite good with a brief discussion on the history of the techniques and descriptions of all the pictures in the book.

Amann, Rudy. "A Mörbius Scarf to Nålbind." Piecework Vol. IX, no. 3 (May/June 2001): pgs. 33-34. Interweave Press, 2001.

English; Fairly clear instructions on the UOO/UUOO F1 variant, including pictures. While clear, I would prefer the pictures had been taken closer up. In addition, while they demonstrate a good method for splicing plied thread, I suggest splicing closer to the work than recommended in these instructions.

Arbman, Holger. "Äldre Handbeklädnad" Part I of "Åslevanten." In Nordiska Museets och Skansens Årsbok Fataburen. pgs. 67-72. 1934.

Swedish; Discusses the find of the Åsle mitten. Includes the full pollen analysis, a dating which has since been overridden by radiocarbon dating. Then briefly discusses mittens in classical literature and the symbolism of mittens in the Middle Ages.

Barber, E. J. W.; Prehistoric Textiles: The Development of Cloth in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages with special reference to the Aegean; Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1991; pgs. 4, 12, 20, 21, 34, 37, 41, 65, 66, 68, 123, 130-134, 140, 177, 182-184, 213, 224, 249, 259; ISBN 0-691-00224-X (hardback ISBN 0-691-03597-0).

English; Discusses the early history of the use of textiles, fibers and spinning, and briefly mentions the nalbinding in the Nehal Hemar cave in Isreal. It also includes mentions of the Skrydstrup blouse of detached buttonhole stitch with three twineing ”central” threads. 

Bender Jørgensen, Lise & Københavns Universitet, ‘Nålebinding i dansk stenalder’ in Textila Tekniker I Nordisk Tradition, Rapport från nordiskt symposium on textila tekniker 1986, ed. by Bengt Wittgren; Etnolore 6, Skrifter från Etnologiska institutionen vid Uppsala universitet; Reprocentralen HSC, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, 1987; pgs. 63-68; ISBN 91-506-0652-2; ISSN 0280-9559.

Danish; Discusses the nalbound finds from Tybrind Vig, 4,200 BC, and a bit on the Bolkilde finds fron 3,400 BC. Includes drawings of the Tybrind Vig finds. 

Bender Jørgensen, Lise; ‘Stone-Age Textiles in North Europe’ in Textiles in Northern Archaeology, Textile Symposium in York, North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles Monograph 3, NESAT III; London Archetype Publications, 1990; pgs. 1-10; ISBN 1-873132-05-0.

English; This article also discusses the nalbound finds from Tybrind Vig, 4,200 BC, and a bit on the Bolkilde finds fron 3,400 BC. Includes drawings of the Tybrind Vig finds and one of the Bolkilde fragments.

Bennett, Wendell C. & Bird, Junius B.; Andean Culture History; Handbook Series No. 15; second and revised edition; ©The American Museum of Natural History; A publication of the Anthropological Handbook Fund, New York, 1960; pgs. 1-6, 112, 257-299.

English; Gives a brief discussion of the nalbinding variant known as ”needle knitting” found in Peru prior to the arrival of the Spanish. (Most likely Nazca and Paracas cultures, c200 BC-c200 AD.)

Bennike, Pia & Ebbesen, Klaus & Bender Jørgensen, Lise; ‘Early neolithic skeletons from Bolkilde bog, Denmark’ in Antiquity, LX, No. 230, November 1986; Antiquity Publications Ltd., Cambridge, 1986; pgs. 199-209; ISSN 0003-598X.

English; While mostly discussing the skeletons, this article also discusses the few pieces of nalbinding found with the bodies. It is interesting to note that the diagram given that is supposedly accurate for all three pieces does not match the picture of one of the Bolkilde fragments found in Bender Jørgensen, Lise; ‘Stone-Age Textiles in North Europe’.

Bock, Franz; Geschichte der liturgischen Gewänder des Mittelalters II; Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz, Austria, 1970; pgs. 1-10, 131-148, 342-354, Taf. VII, XIX, XX, L.

German; Provides nice drawings, though no structural diagrams, of a number of ecclesiastical gloves. Some of which are nalbound.

Bolland, Rita; Tellem Textiles: Archaeological finds from Burial caves in Mali’s Bandiagara Cliff; Mededelingen van het Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde, Leiden, No. 27; trans. by Patricia Wardle; Royal Tropical Institute (KIT), Amsterdam, 1991; ISBN 90-6832-224-9 (KIT Press); ISBN 90-71310-45-0 (Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde).

English; Includes one item made using the simple buttonhole/blanket stitch variant and another item that has some buttonhole filling. It includes numerous woven articles. The occupation of the caves date from the 11th century to the 16th century. 

Braun, Joseph; Die Liturgische Gewandung Im Occident Und Orient: Nach Ursprung Und Entwwicklung, Verwendung Und Symbolik; Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt, Germany, 1964.

German; Of particular interest is the section discussing ecclesiastical gloves. Has pictures and brief description of technique for a number of gloves including two that are nalbound.

Briansdotter, Sigrid; Nålbinding: The Åsle Mitten Stitch: An Instruction Manual: U (U) O/U O:U OO F1+1; © Anne Marie Decker; Tangle Fairies, Snohomish WA, 2000; ISBN 0-9708354-0-X.

English; Provides detailed information on the actual Åsle Mitten and detailed instructions, with clear diagrams, on  how to reproduce the stitch and  use it to make a number of different items.

Brodén, Märta; Nålbindning; LTs förlag, LTK, Stockholm; Centraltrykeriet AB, Borås, 1973; ISBN 91-36-00303-4.

Swedish; A book  with instructions, including diagrams, for the UOOO/UUUOO F2 variant. It also includes a brief history of nalbinding, descriptions of the best  types of wool to use, instructions for socks, mittens, scarves, and hats, and methods for fulling the object. Includes a Swedish-Danish word list.

Brodén, Märta; Nålbindning, Handledning; andra upplagen (2nd edition); LTs förlag, LTK, Stockholm; Centraltrykeriet AB, Borås, 1972; ISBN 91-36-00153-8.

Swedish; A short book with instructions, but no diagrams, for the UOOO/UUUOO F1 variant. Includes directions for child and adult sized socks, men’s mitten, and directions for fulling the item.

Burnham, Dorothy K.; ‘Coptic Knitting: An Ancient Technique’ in Textile History, Vol. 3 December 1972; ed. by K. G. Ponting and Dr S. D. Chapman; The Pasold Research Fund LTD, England, 1972; pgs. 116-124.

English; Explains that the Egyptian socks from the 4th – 6th centuries AD while appearing to be constructed using the Crossed Eastern Knitting method are actually made using a variant of nalbinding which she refers to as ”single-needle knitting”. Includes diagrams and explanations of the method and heel formation. 

Bush, Nancy; Folk Knitting in Estonia: A Garland of Symbolism, Tradition and Technique; Interweave Press, Loveland, Colorado, 1999; ISBN 1-883010-43-8; pgs. 26-27.


Bush, Nancy; ‘Nålbinding – From the Iron Age to Today’ in Piecework Vol. IX N. 3, May / June 2001; Interweave Press, 2001; pgs. 28-32.

English; A brief history of nalbinding with some excellent photographs. Includes the best photo I have seen of the red Egyptian nalbound hat with cross-knit nalbound tassel.

Caulfeild, S. F. A. & Saward, Blanche C.; Encyclopedia of Victorian Needlework [Dictionary of Needlework]; Vol. I, A-L; an unabridged republication of the second edition (1887) of the work originally published by A. W. Cowan, London, in 1882 under the title The Dictionary of Needlework: An Encyclopedia of Artistic, Plain, and Fancy Needlework; Dover Publications, Inc. New York, 1972; pgs. 56, 57, 88, 89, 94, 95, 186, ?, 190, 191, 238-240, 253-256; ISBN 0-486-22800-2; Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 79-182103.

English; Includes various needle laces based off or including buttonhole variants. Useful for analyzing cross-over structures.

Caulfeild, S. F. A. & Saward, Blanche C.; Encyclopedia of Victorian Needlework [Dictionary of Needlework]; Vol. II, M-Z and Supplement; an unabridged republication of the second edition (1887) of the work originally published by A. W. Cowan, London, in 1882 under the title The Dictionary of Needlework: An Encyclopedia of Artistic, Plain, and Fancy Needlework; Dover Publications, Inc. New York, 1972; pgs. 403-410, 446, 447, 453-457, 464, 469, 511-513; ISBN 0-486-22801-0; Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 79-182103.

English; see above

Claßen-Büttner, Ulrike. Nadelbinden – Was ist denn das? Geschichte und Technik einer fast vergessenen Handarbeit. Norderstedt: Books on Demand GmbH, 2012. ISBN 978-3-8482-0124-2.

German; Contains both information regarding the history of nalbinding and instructions.

Claßen-Büttner, Ulrike. Nalbinding – What in the World Is That? History and Technique of an Almost Forgotten Handicraft. Norderstedt: Books on Demand, 2015. ISBN 978-3-7347-8775-1.

English; Contains both information regarding the history of nalbinding and instructions. Note: This is the black & white US version. There is an English color version available via the German sites.

Collin, Maria; ‘Sydda vantar’ in Fataburen; 1917; pgs. 71-78.

Swedish; Discusses Swedish nålbinding of the early 20th cent. Includes diagram instructions for the UOU/OUOO F1, UO/UOO F1, and UOO/UUOO F2 variants. The last is particularly interesting as the diagrams and the accompaning photo are directly out of Louise Schinnerer’s ”Antike Handarbeiten” which is the first book in which a variant of nålbinding is diagramed.

Collingwood, Peter; The Maker’s Hand, A Close Look at Textile Structures; Lark Books, Asheville, NC & Interweave Press, Loveland, Colorado, 1987; pgs. 9, 14-33, 44-45; ISBN 0-937274-26-7.

English; Includes pictures and diagrams of a number of items made using buttonhole variants, a pair of  Norwegian mittens made using UOOOO/UUUUOO F1, and a pair of socks from Oman that uses a very unusual variant possibly classified as UUOO/UUU/OOO/UUUOO. 

Dahl, Hjordis; Högsäng och Klädbod: Ur Svenskbygdernas Textilhistoria; Skrifter utg. av Sv. Litteratursällskapet I Finland NR 544, ISSN 0039-6842; Folklivsstudier XVIII, ISSN 0085-0764; Svenska litteratursällskapet I Finland (Tryckeri och Tidnings Ab), Helsingfors (Borga), 1987; pgs. 342-345; ISBN 951-9018-36-0.

Swedish; Includes a brief section on the nalbinding of the Swedish speaking parts of  Finland. Gives a diagram of a variant where the intersection is split not just turned around, UOO≠UUOO F1.

Danielson, Sofia; Hand och tanke; 100 år textil; Nordiska museet, Stockholm, 1973; pgs, 26-28; ISBN 91-7108-059-7.

Swedish; A brief discussion on Märta Brodén and her nalbinding background. Includes diagrams for variant UO/UOO, although #2 & #3 don’t make sense, and Brodén’s sock.

Daugherty, Robin Taylor; ‘A Treasure Pouch in Simple Looping’ in Piecework Vol. II N. 1, January/February 1994; Interweave Press, 1994; pgs. 66-69.

English; Directions for making a small pouch in the simple buttonhole variant.

Davidson, D. S.; ‘Australian Netting and Basketry Techniques’ in The Journal of the Polynesian Society; 1933; pgs. 257-299.

English; Discusses Australian netting and Basketry techniques including simple loop, loop and twist, and hourglass variants.

Davidson, D. S.; ‘Knotless netting in America and Oceania’ in American Anthropologist, New Series, 37; 1935; pgs. 117-134.

English; Discusses American Continent and Pacific Island nalbinding. Includes diagrams of many buttonhole variations, loop & twist variations, hourglass variations, and the O/UO B1 & U/OO F3 variants. 

Dépôt de la Paroisse de Delémont; Color photo of the socks of St. Germain (most probably his relic) ~ 5 inches by 5 inches (arranged as in the article by Stekoffer) and a photocopy of what appears to be the information card that would go with them at the museum.

French; Has English translation below it.

de Dillmont, Thérèse; Encyclopedia of Needlework; D.M.C Library; Editions Th. De Dillmont, Mulhouse, France, 1975.

English; Includes various needle laces based off or including buttonhole/blanket and loop & twist variants. Useful for analysis purposes.

de Dillmont, Therese; Encyclopedia of Needlework; New Edition, revised and enlarged; D.M.C Library; Bracken Books, London, 1987; ISBN 1-85170-014-5.

English; See above.

De Moor, Antoine, Cäcilia Fluck, M. Van Strydonck, and M. Boudin. "Radiocarbon dating of Late Roman woolen socks from Egypt," In Textiles, tools and techniques of the 1st millennium AD from Egypt and neighbouring countries. Proceedings of the 8th conference of the research group ‘Textiles from the Nile Valley,’ Antwerp, 4-6 October 2013, edited by Antoine De Moor, Cäcilia Fluck, and Petra Linscheid, p. 131-136. Tielt: Lannoo Publishers, 2015.


Drew Bear, M., DARMC, R. Talbert, Sean Gillies, Johan Åhlfeldt, Jeffrey Becker, and Tom Elliott, "Antinoopolis: a Pleiades place resource," in Pleiades: A Gazetteer of Past Places, Last modified Sep 01, 2017 10:59 PM. Accessed on June 21, 2019.

English; Does not contain any information regarding nalbinding. However, is extremely useful for locating ancient place names in Egypt. This particular one is set on Antinoopolis. All content in Pleiades: A Gazetteer of Past Places is distributed under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution license (cc-by).

Explore Fayoum. "UNEXPECTED TREASURES 30 YEARS OF EXCAVATIONS IN UM EL BURIGAT (TEPTYNIS) AT CAIRO MUSEUM." Cultural Heritage of the Fayoum. Published April 16, 2019. Accessed May 24, 2019.

Finch, Karen; Summary in English of; Åsle Vanten: Description and Pattern; by Lundwall, Eva & Nockert, Margreta; Riksantikvarieämbetets Textilsektion, Stockholm, 1982.

English; A description of the Åsle mitten including a supposed # of stitches per row pattern that is not correct (at least in the finger area). However it does include information on how the fringe was made.

Frazén, Anne Marie; ‘En medeltida socka i nålning’ in Uppland: årsbok; Upplands fornminnesforening; 1963; pgs. 38-47.

Swedish; Discusses the sock found in Uppsala made using the UOO/UUOO variant, dating to the Late Middle Ages. Includes many good photos of the sock, some needles, and a sock from Söderköping from the Middle Ages along with a mitten of much more recent origin.

Frazén, Mari-Louise; email correspondence; 07 July 2000.

Gauslaa, Torbjørg; ‘Nålbinding’ in Norsk Husflid Vol. 3, 1976; pgs. 4-14.

Norwegien; Includes a short history of nalbinding and instructions, with pictures, for variant UOOO/UUUOO F2. Has a picture of the mitten from Oslo’s Old Town c 1100’s.

Geijer, Agnes; Birka III: Die Textilfunde aus den Gräbern; Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien; Uppsala, 1938.

German; Describes a type of embroidery that appears to be buttonhole/blanket stitch and occasionally used detached from other backgrounds. She calls it Ösenstich. It is necessary to note that although at one time a German term for the structural equivalent of the blanket stitch variant of nalbinding appears to be Schlingenstich, what Geijer refers to as Schlingenstich in this article is very definitely not nalbinding.

Geijer, Agnes; ‘The Textile Finds from Birka’ in Cloth and Clothing in Medieval Europe: Essays in Memory of Professor E. M. Carus-Wilson, (Pasold Studies in Textile History 2); ed. N. B. Harte & K. G. Ponting; Heinemann Educational Books, The Pasold Research Fund Ltd., 1983; pgs. 80-99; ISBN 0-435-32382-2.

English; Content basically as above but in English. She suggests translating Ösenstich as ”reverse chain-stitch”.

Geijer, Agnes; ‘The Textile Finds from Birka: Birka III, Die Textilfunde aus den Gräbern, revised by author’ in Acta Archaeologica Vol. 50 – 1979, København, 1980; pgs. 209-222.

English; Similar content as above.

Gómez-Moreno, Manuel; El Panteon Real de las Huelgas de Burgos; Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas; Instituto Diego Velázquez; Madrid, 1946.

Spanish; Contains photos and a brief description of a nalbound mitten belonging to María de Aragón, daughter of Jaime II, le sobrevivía en 1331. This attribution has been since questioned. The main part  of the mitten is worked in a sort of patterned buttonhole stitch.

Grass, Milton; ‘The Origins of the Art of Knitting’ in Archaeology Vol 8 No. 3 Autumn (Sept.) 1955; pgs. 184-190.

English; Incorrectly identifies the Dura-Europos fragment and the 3rd-6th cent Egyptian socks as knitting. Does have some nice pictures.

Gustafsson, Kerstin; Gamla Textila Tekniker I Ull; Kerstin Gustafsson och LTs Forlag AB Boktryck, Helsingborg, 1990; pgs, 17-37, 114; ISBN 91-36-02703-0.

Swedish; Provides a brief introdution to nalbinding and its history. Includes instructions, with diagrams, for the UOOO/UUUOO F2, UUUOOO/UUUOOOO F2, UOU/OUOO F2, U(U)O/UO:UOO F1+1, U/OO, and simple buttonhole/blanket variants. 

Haakinsdotter, Elsa (Ruth Decker); ‘Numerical breakdown for hats’; unpublished, 1998.

Decker, Ruth; email coorespondence; cites Paths towards a Stratified Society by Ingegerd Sarlvik in the series Stockholm Studies in Archaeology; Spring 2000.

Decker, Ruth; email coorespondence; ‘How to shape a hat, by the numbers’; Spring 2000.

Hald, Margrethe; Ancient Danish Textiles from Bogs And Burials: A Comparative Study of Costume and Iron Age Textiles; Publications of The National Museum of Denmark; Archaeological Historical Series XXI; Translated by Jean Olsen; Fyens Stiftsbogtrykkeri, Copenhagen, 1980; ISBN 87-480-0312-3.

English; Provides a classification system for nalbinding or "looped needle netting."  Gives a history of nalbinding describing many items. Provides pictures, instructions, and more often diagrams for many variations. The simple variants are included under the 'sewing and embroidery' and 'mesh stitch' categories. Good intro book.

Hald, Margrethe; ‘Lundavanten’ in Kulturen: en årsbok till medlemmarna av kulturhistoriska foreningen for södra Sverige; Kulturhistoriska foreningen; 1945; pgs. 80-83.

Swedish; Describes a Middle Ages mitten from Lund. Gives diagram of UO/UOO F1.

Hansen, Egon H.; ‘Nalebinding: definition and description’ in Textiles in Northern Archaeology, Textile Symposium in York, North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles Monograph 3, NESAT III; London Archetype Publications, 1990; pgs. 21-27; ISBN 1-873132-05-0.

English; Provides a classification system for nalbinding and a proposed definition. Includes structural pictures for a number of variants.

Hansen, Egon H.; ‘Nålebinding og brikvævning fra Mammengraven: Mammenhøvding eller kvide?’ in Mammen : Grav, kunst og samfund i vikingetid; ed. Mette Iversen; Jysk Arkæologisk Selskabs Skrifter XXVIII, 1991; pgs. 145-148; ISBN 87-7288-571-8; ISSN 0107-2854.

Danish; Describes the Mammen Pennants. Classifications appears to be backwards, i.e. seen from the other side.

d’Harcourt, Raoul; Textiles of Ancient Peru and their Techniques; trans. by Sadie Brown; ed. by Grace G. Denny and Carolyn M. Osborne; University of Washington Press, Seattle, 1962; Library of Congress CCN 62-17150.

English; Includes a large section on the figures done in ”loop stitch’ on the Paracas Textile and some other items from Peru between 200 BC – 200 AD.

Harris, Jennifer ed.; Textiles, 5,000 Years: an international history and illustrated survey; © The Trustees of the British Museum; Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York, 1993; pg. 48.

English; Has a nice color picture of a 2nd cent. AD sock from Egypt and includes part of Burnham’s diagram for ’crossed-loop knitting’. This book does recognize it is not Knitting.

Hopkins, Heather, and Katrin Kania. Ancient Textiles Modern Science II. Havertown: Oxbow Books, Limited, 2018.


Hoskins, Nancy Arthur; Universal Stitches for weaving, embroidery, and other fiber arts; distributed by the University of Washington Press, Seattle and London; Skein Publications, Eugene, OR, 1982, second printing 1985; ISBN 0-295-96274-7; Library of Congress Catalog Card number 82-80789.

English; Includes diagrams for a number of buttonhole variants and a picture of a Nazca (c 0-200AD) necklace sized ceremonial circlet of birds and flowers.

Hutchinson, Elaine; ‘Nalebinding: the history origins, construction and use of ‘needle-binding’ with specific reference to the ‘Coopergate sock’’; May 1992; Regia Anglorum Publications, 1995;

English; While focusing primarily on the Coppergate sock it aslo includes some history.

Joseph, Marjory L.; Introductory Textile Science: Second Edition; Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., USA, 1966, 1972; ISBN 0-03-086679-0; Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 70-171525.

English; Includes a table of: coiling (simple loop), (figure-of-eight stitch), (simple loop with knitting effect), coiling with foundation, and Vantsöm (half knot) which doesn’t look like any vantsöm I’ve seen.

Kaukonen, Toini-Inkeri; ‘Kinnasompelun levinneisyys ja tyotavat Suomessa’ in Suomen museo, Vol. 67; Suomen muinaismuistoyhdistys, Helsinki, 1960; pgs. 44-73.

Finnish; Discusses nalbinding in Finland. Includes photos of several pieces, both old and modern. Includes diagrams of a number of variants. Has a summary in German.

Kaukonen, Toini-Inkeri; Suomalaiset kansanpuvut ja kansallispuvut; WSOY; Werner Söderström, Osakeyhtiö, Porvoo, Helsinki, Juva, 1985; pgs. 93-99, 366; ISBN 951-0-12794-9; Title translated as ”Finnish Folk Costumes and Present-Day use of ’National Dresses’”.

Finnish; Includes a brief section on nalbinding.

Kendrick, A. F.; Catalogue of Textiles From Burying-Grounds in Egypt; Vol. II. Period of Transition and of Christian Emblems; Victoria and Albert Museum, Department of Textiles; London, 1921.

English; Catalogs incorrectly as knitting a some Egyptian socks from 4th –5th cent. AD.

King, Mary Elizabeth; Ancient Peruvian Textiles from the Collection of the Textile Museum Washington D.C. The Museum of Primitive Art New York; Introduction and notes by King; The Museum of Primitive Art, New York, 1965; Library of Congress CCN: 65-28305.

English; Includes a picture of one item borders using simple and cross-knit looping variants from the proto- or early- Nazca time frame.

King, Mary Elizabeth; Textiles and Basketry of the Paracas Period, Ica Valley, Peru; reprinted from DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS, Vol. 26, No. 3; University Microfilms, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1965.

English; A Ph.D. dissertation which includes numerous catalog entries for items made in, or embellished with, simple and cross-knit variants. Of greatest interest are the animal figurines and the shirts.

Kissel, Mary Lois; ‘Basketry of the Papago and Pima’ in the Anthropological Papers of The American Museum of Natural History, Vol. XVII, Part IV; by order of the trustees of the American Museum of Natural History, New York, 1916.

English; Includes description, pictures, and diagrams of ”lace coiling” as used by the Papago and Pima tribes found in Southern Arizona.

Koskennurmi-Sivonen, Ritva.& Mikkilä, Katri; Peruskoulun neulekirja; WSOY; Werner Söderström, Osakeyhtiö, Porvoo, Helsinki, Juva, 1984; ISBN 951-0-12283-1.

Finnish; Includes a brief section on nalbinding with instructions, diagrammed, for the UOOUU/OOUUOO F2 variant.

Lehtosalo-Hilander, Pirkko-Liisa; Ancient Finnish Costumes; The Finnish Archaeological Society, 1984; ISBN 951-99605-4-6;

English; Provides the history of the reconstruction of the Finnish costume and in particular the Eura Constume based on grave finds from the early part of the 11th cent. It briefly mentions the nalbinding found in Grave 56 but refers to it as “sewn mitten technique.”

Lehtosalo-Hilander, Pirkko-Liisa; Luistari I: The Graves; Suomen Muinaismuistoyhdistyksen Aikakauskirja Finska Fornminnesföreningens Tidskrift 82:1; Helsinki, 1982; ISBN 951-9056-46-7; ISBN 951-9056-47-5; ISSN 0355-1822; Note bound as one volume with 82:2, 82:3, & 83:1.

English & Finnish; Archaeological findings of the Luistari Cemetary in Eura, Finland dating to the 11th cent. Most important is grave 56 and there are some nice photos of it. There is also a photo of the actual piece of nalbinding, however the variant isn’t mentioned.

Lehtosalo-Hilander, Pirkko-Liisa; Luistari II: The Artefacts; Suomen Muinaismuistoyhdistyksen Aikakauskirja Finska Fornminnesföreningens Tidskrift 82:2; Helsinki, 1982; ISBN 951-9056-46-7; ISBN 951-9056-48-3; ISSN 0355-1822; Note bound as one volume with 82:1, 82:3, & 83:1.

English & Finnish; Continued archaeological record. Mentions that Grave 56 is dated to c. 1000-1070 AD and gives mention of other graves from the same time.

Lehtosalo-Hilander, Pirkko-Liisa; Luistari III: A Burial-Ground Reflecting The Finnish Viking Age Society; Suomen Muinaismuistoyhdistyksen Aikakauskirja Finska Fornminnesföreningens Tidskrift 82:3; Helsinki, 1982; ISBN 951-9056-46-7; ISBN 951-9056-49-1; ISSN 0355-1822; Note bound as one volume with 82:1, 82:2, & 83:1.

English & Finnish; Cont. from above. Mentions evidence they made ”sewn mittens.”

Leinonen, Kaisa Marika; Neulakinnasperinne Suomessa; Joensuun yliopisto; Savonlinnan Opettajankoulutuslaitos; Pro gradu –tutkielma, Huhtikuu 2000; (Tradition of Nålebinding Mittens in Finland; ?; Savolinna Department of Teacher Education; Master’s Thesis, April 2000); pgs. 1-95; English Abstract; on Microfiche.

Finnish; Discusses the current tradition of nalbinding in Finland today. Mentions that the tradition is best preserved amongst the Carelians. Provides diagrams for UUOO/UUOOO F1, UUOOUU/OOUUOOO F1, and a variant that the intersection point is twisted into a loop before the new thread is drawn through, classified something like UUOO(Udown)O/UUUOOU F1.

Levey, S. M.; ’Illustrations of the History of Knitting Selected from the Collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum’ in Textile History 1968-70, Vol. I No. I; ed. by K. G. Ponting; David & Charles Ltd., Great Britain, 1971; ISBN 0-7153-5166-4; pgs. 183-205.


Ligon, Linda C.; ‘The Ubiquitous Loop’ in Piecework Vol. II N. 1, January/February 1994; Interweave Press, 1994; pgs. 64-66.

English; Discusses items made using the simple buttonhole/blanket variant. Has a picture of a Native American sock, a bag, and some other items.

DeLuco, Pam; ‘The Chácara of the Ngöbe Woman: Handspun string bags from Panama’ in Spin-Off, Vol. XXV, No. 2, Summer 2001; Interweave Press, Inc., 2001; pgs. 62-65.

English; Discusses the entire process in making the bags and has diagrams of two stitch variants, simple buttonhole and O/UO F1?.

Mair, Victor H. "Ancient Mummies of the Tarim Basin" Expedition Magazine 58.2 (2016): Expedition Magazine. Penn Museum, 2016 Web. 25 Apr 2019

English; Does not contain any information on the nalbinding. Provided solely as background information on the Tarim mummies.

Manninen, Ilmari; Pohjoisen Karjalan vanhanaikainen talous; historiallisten lähteiden mukaan; Historiallisia tutkimuksia V; Suomen historiallinen seura; Helsinki, 1992.

Finnish; Mentions Russian Mittens but I can’t read it well enough to be sure.

Martinson, Kate; ‘Scandinavian Nålbinding; Needle Looped Fabric’ in Weaver’s Journal XII, No. 2, Issue 46; Fall 1987.

English; Brief discussion of nalbinding and instructions with diagrams for UOOO/UUUOO F2. Also give brief directions for finishing (fulling) an item.

Mašek, Andrea. "Coole Socke: Ein Hoch auf die Häkelkunst der alten Ägypter." Museum der Kulturen, Basel. Last modified February 1, 2019. Last accessed May 10, 2019.

German & English: The site is in German and thus the header and outer materials, but the interview questions and responses are in English. Anne Marie Decker and Cary Karp were interviewed regarding their January 17, 2019 visit to the Museum der Kulturen Basel depot to examine items in the collection.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art; Peruvian Textiles, Examples of the Pre-Incaic Period; New York, 1930.

English; Gives a good breakdown of the cultural time frames in Peru. Includes a picture of a neck ornament, humming birds & flowers, made in the cross-knit variant, here called ”knitted.”

Müller-Christensen, Sigrid & Kubach, Hans Erich & Stein, Günter; ‘Die Gräber im Königschor’ in Der Dom zu Speyer Vol. 2 (Textband); Hans Erich Kubach and Walter Haas, eds.; Deutscher Kunstverlag, Münich, 1972; ISBN 3-422-00539-0; see also Pict. 1464 in Der Dom zu Speyer Vol. 1 (Bildband) ); Hans Erich Kubach and Walter Haas, eds.; Deutscher Kunstverlag, Münich, 1972; ISBN 3-422-00539-0.

German; The Textband mentions a silk glove fragment, the Bildband has a picture of it, from 1056AD?. The footnote includes mention of a few other items. The Textband also includes catalog mentions of another silk glove/mitten and one linen one.

Müller-Christensen, Sigrid, ed.; Sakrale Gewänder des Mittelalters: Ausstellung im Bayerischen Nationalmuseum München, 8. Juli bis 25. September 1955; Hirmer Verlag München, 1955.

German; Includes in the catalog a linen mitten from the middle of the 1200’s.

Munksgaard, Elisabeth; ‘Kopien af dragten fra Mammengraven’ in Mammen : Grav, kunst og samfund i vikingetid; ed. Mette Iversen; Jysk Arkæologisk Selskabs Skrifter XXVIII, 1991; pgs. 151-153; ISBN 87-7288-571-8; ISSN 0107-2854.

Danish; Regarding the replica of the Mammen clothing. Includes pictures of how they think the pennants were worn.

Nahlik, Adam; Tkaniny Wełniane Importowane i Miejscowe Nowogrodu Wielkiego X-XV Wieku; French summary trans. by Jadwiga Packiewizcówna; Zakład Narodowy Imienia Ossolińskich Wydawnictwo Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Wrocław / Warszawa / Kraków, 1964; (No ISBN listed in this rebound book).

Polish; Archaeological work including mention of 9 nalbound fragments found in Novgorod. Gives diagrams and instructions for the UO/UOO variant.

Nargi, Lela. Knitting Around the World: A Multistranded History of a Time-Honored Tradition. Minneapolis: Voyageur Press, 2011. ISBN 9780760337943

English; Primarily about knitting, it does include a section on nalbinding including several of my images. Yes, those are my thumbs.

Nelson, Lila; ‘Toothbrush Handle Rugs; Nålbinding with Rags’ in Weaver’s Journal XII, No. 2, Issue 46; Fall 1987.

English; Discusses the history of Toothbrush rugs in America and their relation to nalbinding in other materials. Includes instructions adapted from the Nebraska Extension Service.

Nockert, Margareta; email correspondence; May 2000.

Nockert, Margareta & Possnert, Göran; Att datera textilier; summary trans. by Roger Tanner; Gidlunds Förlag, Fingraf Tryckeri, Södertälje, 2002; ISBN 91-7844-620-1.

Swedish with an English summary; Has the radiocarbon dating of the Åsle mitten.

Nordiska Museet; Swedish Textiles; ed. Emelie von Walterstorff; Victor Pettersons Bokindutriaktiebolag, Stockholm, 1925; pgs. Intro, 81, fig. 228.

English; Includes a brief explanation of ”sewing of mittens,” ’nålning or vantsöm.’ Gives a diagram of UOO/UUOO F1 and a picture of a mitten from Värmland.

Nordland, Odd; Primitive Scandinavian Textiles in Knotless Netting; Studia Norvegica 10; Oslo University Press, Oslo, 1961; No ISBN listed in Book.

English; Source of the second classification system attempted for nalbinding. Includes numerous pictures of items, primarily 19th century.

Nylén, Anna-Maja; Swedish Handicraft; trans. Anne-Charlotte Hanes Harvey; Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, 1977; pgs. 315-318; ISBN 0-442-26090-3; ; Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 75-28331.


O’Neale, Lila M.; ‘Textile Periods in Ancient Peru: II Paracas Caverns and the Grand Necropolis’ in University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol 39, No. 2; University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1942.


Østergård, Else; ‘Textilfragmenterne fra Mammengraven’ in Mammen : Grav, kunst og samfund i vikingetid; ed. Mette Iversen; Jysk Arkæologisk Selskabs Skrifter XXVIII, 1991; pgs. 123-138; ISBN 87-7288-571-8; ISSN 0107-2854.


Øye, Ingvild; Textile Equipment and its Working Environment, Bryggen in Bergen, c 1150-1500; The Bryggen Papers, Main Series 2; Norwegian University Press, 1988; ISBN 82-00-02537-3.


Pfister, Rudolf and Bellinger, Louisa. "The textiles: Knitting," Rostovtzeff, M.I., et al. The excavations at Dura-Europos Final Report IV, Part II. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1945, 54-5.

English; Includes a knitting pattern attempting to reproduce the patterned Dura-Europos fragment. 

Priest-Dorman, Carolyn; email coorespondence; cites Sakrale Gewander des Mitteralters by Sigrid Muller-Christinsen; 5 Jan. 2000.

Rutt, Richard. A History of Hand Knitting. London: B T Batsford Ltd, 1987 ISBN 0713451181; reprinted Loveland, Colorado: Interweave Press, 1989 ISBN 0-934026-35-1, Library of Congress Catalog Number 87-46353; pgs. 8, 9, 23, 28-30, 243, 244.

English; Primarily on the history of hand knitting, Rutt also includes information on structures readily confused with knitting. He includes information regarding the Dura-Europos fragments and Romano-Egyptian socks.

Schick, Tamar; ‘Cordage, Basketry and Fabrics’ in ‘Antiqot English Series, Vol. XVIII, Nehal Hemar Cave; Jerusalem, 1988; pgs. 31-43, Plates XIII, XIV, XV, XVI, XVII, XVIII, XIX, XX.

English; Includes images of the blanket stitch fragments and the cross-knit nalbound fragments in the plates. There is also a knotted headdress that is often confused for the fragments of nalbinding.

Schmedding, Brigitta; Mittelalterliche Textilien in Kirchen und Klöstern der Schweiz; Schriften der Abegg-Stiftung Bern, Bern, 1978; pg. 99 of a total 325 pgs.; ISBN 3-7272-9682-8.


Schmitt, Lawrence; Lessons in Nålbinding: Scarves Wimples and more; Larry Schmitt, Cottage Grove, WI, 1996.


Schmitt, Lawrence W.; Mittens, Mittens, Mittens! A Nålbinding Mitten Workbook; Larry Schmitt, Cottage Grove, WI, 1997.


Smeds, Christina; ”Nyfiken på Dalbyvanten”; ett projektarbete vid Datorteket i Transtrand; 29 januari 1999;


Steffensen, Helga; Nålebinding; Borgens Forlag, Printed by Andelsbogtrykkeriet, Odense; ISBN 87-418-3505-0.


Stékoffer, Sarah; ‘4.1 Le trésor de l’Abbaye de Moutier-Grandval’ in La cross mérovingienne de saint Germain, premier abbé de Moutier-Grandval; Office du patrimoine historique – Societe jurassienne d’Emulation, Porrentruy, 1996; 3 pages of a total of 184 pages in the book; ISBN 2-88436-005-0.


Strömberg, Elisabeth; ‘Åslevantens Teknik’ Part II of ‘Åslevanten’ in Nordiska Museets och Skansens Årsbok Fataburen; 1934; see Arbman, Holger.


The Textile Museum; An Introduction to Textile Terms; The Textile Museum, Washington, DC, 1997.


Thomas, Thelma K. “Coptic and Byzantine Textiles Found in Egypt: Corpora, Collections, and Scholarly Perspectives.” In Egypt in the Byzantine World, 2007.

English; Briefly mentions the early finds of "knitting" that in this case refer to finds of the cross-knit nalbinding variant. Most useful for references to early explorers and excavations.

Turnau, Irena; ‘The Diffusion of Knitting in Medieval Europe’ in Cloth and Clothing in Medieval Europe: Essays in Memory of Professor E. M. Carus-Wilson, (Pasold Studies in Textile History 2); ed. N. B. Harte & K. G. Ponting; Heinemann Educational Books, The Pasold Research Fund Ltd., 1983; pgs. 368-389; ISBN 0-435-32382-2.


Turnau, Irena; History of Knitting Before Mass Production; Institute of the History of Material Culture, Polish Academy of Sciences; Warsaw, 1991; ISBN 83-900213-2-3 .


Vahter, Tyyni; ‘Tuukkalan neulakinnas’ in Suomen Muinaismuistoyhdistyken aikakauskirja = Finska fornminnesfeoreningens tidskrift, Vol. 40; Helsinki : Yhdistys; 1934. pgs. 236-243.


Vajanto, Krista. "Nålbinding in Prehistoric Burials – Reinterpreting Finnish 11th–14th-century AD Textile Fragments." in Sounds Like Theory. XII Nordic Theoretical Archaeology Group Meeting in Oulu 25.–28.4.2012. Monographs of the Archaeological Society of Finland 2, edited by Janne Ikäheimo, Anna-Kaisa Salmi & Tiina Äikäs, pgs. 21–33. The Archaeological Society of Finland, 2014.

English; Stable URL: Accessed June 21, 2019. ISBN 978-952-67594-7-0 (PDF), ISBN 978-952-67594-6-3 (hardback)

Van Strydonck, Mark, Antoine De Moor, and Dominique Bénazeth. "Carbon Dating compared to Art Historical Dating of Roman and Coptic Textiles from Egypt." RADIOCARBON, Vol 46, no. 1: pgs. 231–244. Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona, 2004.

English; Also at Accessed May 25, 2019.

Vuori, Pertti; Tulentallojain tarinoita II; Joutsenon kotiseutuyhdistyksen julkaisu n:o 2; Joutsenolainen kotiseutulukemisto 1720-luvulta 1860-luvulle; Lappeenranta; 1981; ISSN 0357-914X; ISBN 951-99339-2-1.


Walton Rogers, Penelope; Textile Production at 16-22 Coopergate; The Archaeology of York; Volume 17: The Small Finds; Fasc. 11; Council for British Archaeology (for the York Archaeological Trust), Dorchester, Dorset, UK, 1997; ISBN 1-872414-76-1.


Walton, Penelope; ‘Textile Production at Coppergate, York: Anglo-Saxon or Viking?’ in Textiles in Northern Archaeology, Textile Symposium in York, North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles Monograph 3, NESAT III; London Archetype Publications, 1990; ISBN 1-873132-05-0.


Walton, Penelope; Textiles, Cordage and Raw Fiber from 16-22 Coppergate; The Archaeology of York; Volume 17: The Small Finds; Fasc. 5; Council for British Archaeology (for the York Archaeological Trust), Dorchester, Dorset, UK, 1989; ISBN 0-906780-79-9.


Westman, Berit; ‘Att ’söma’ och sy nålvantar’ in Hemslöjden, 1985/5; pgs. 10-12.


Westman, Berit; Nålbindning; Firma Tumvanten; Tryckt hos Affärs-Tryckeriet AB; Västerås, 1995; ISBN 91-970550-3-4.


Westman, Berit; Nålbindning; 12 varianter; Andersson & Kagardt, Västerås, 1983; ISBN 91-970550-0-X.


Westman, Berit; ‘Nålbindning i Västmanlands län’ in Fornminnesforeningens arrskrift; 1986; pgs. 54-60.


Wild, John Peter; Textiles in Archaeology; Shire Archaeology 56; Shire Publications Ltd., Aylesbury, UK, 1988; pgs. 49-53; ISBN 0-85263-931-7.


Xin, Xiaoyu. "Research on Prehistoric Hats in Xinjiang (2000 BC-200 BC)" Asian Social Science Vol. 11, No. 7. Canadian Center of Science and Education 2015. ISSN 1911-2017 E-ISSN 1911-2025. Accessed June 3, 2019.

English; The article includes information on the Tarim beret (blanket stitch) and the witch's hat (Loop & Twist and Blanket stitch). The article refers to these hats as "knitted" which is not the only evidence of translation issues inherent from Chinese to English.

Last major update 2004. Minor updates and additions May 24, 2019.

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