Annotated Bibliography & Other Sources

—Work in Progress. Last updated 29 February 2020—

Almay, Mirja, Marketta Luutonen, and Kyllikki Mitronen. Sydamenlammittaja ja tikkuripaita: Perinteisia neuleita Suomesta ja Eestista; Kustannusosakeyhtio: pgs. 5, 39, 93-95, English Summary 145-150. Helsinki: Tammi, 1993. ISBN 951-31-0089-9.

Finnish; While mostly concentrating on knitting in Finland and Estonia, and some crochet, this book does include a small section on nalbinding with directions, in Finnish, for UUOOUU/OOUUOOO. The English summary is quite good with a brief discussion on the history of the techniques and descriptions of all the pictures in the book.

Amann, Rudy. "A Mörbius Scarf to Nålbind." Piecework Vol. IX, no. 3 (May/June 2001): pgs. 33-34. Interweave Press, 2001.

English; Fairly clear instructions on the UOO/UUOO F1 variant, including pictures. While clear, I would prefer the pictures had been taken closer up. In addition, while they demonstrate a good method for splicing plied thread, I suggest splicing closer to the work than recommended in these instructions.

Arbman, Holger. "Äldre Handbeklädnad" Part I of "Åslevanten." In Nordiska Museets och Skansens Årsbok Fataburen. pgs. 67-72. 1934.

Swedish; Discusses the find of the Åsle mitten. Includes the full pollen analysis, a dating which has since been overridden by radiocarbon dating. Then briefly discusses mittens in classical literature and the symbolism of mittens in the Middle Ages.

Barber, Elizbeth Wayland. The Mummies of Ürümchi. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1999. ISBN 0-393-04521-8.

English; Discusses the early history of the use of textiles, fibers and spinning, and briefly mentions the nalbinding in the Nehal Hemar cave in Isreal. It also includes mentions of the Skrydstrup blouse of detached buttonhole stitch with three twineing ”central” threads. 

Barber, E. J. W.; Prehistoric Textiles: The Development of Cloth in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages with special reference to the Aegean; Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1991; pgs. 4, 12, 20, 21, 34, 37, 41, 65, 66, 68, 123, 130-134, 140, 177, 182-184, 213, 224, 249, 259; ISBN 0-691-00224-X (hardback ISBN 0-691-03597-0).

English; Discusses the early history of the use of textiles, fibers and spinning, and briefly mentions the nalbinding in the Nehal Hemar cave in Isreal. It also includes mentions of the Skrydstrup blouse of detached buttonhole stitch with three twineing ”central” threads. 

Bender Jørgensen, Lise & Københavns Universitet, ‘Nålebinding i dansk stenalder’ in Textila Tekniker I Nordisk Tradition, Rapport från nordiskt symposium on textila tekniker 1986, ed. by Bengt Wittgren; Etnolore 6, Skrifter från Etnologiska institutionen vid Uppsala universitet; Reprocentralen HSC, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, 1987; pgs. 63-68; ISBN 91-506-0652-2; ISSN 0280-9559.

Danish; Discusses the nalbound finds from Tybrind Vig, 4,200 BC, and a bit on the Bolkilde finds fron 3,400 BC. Includes drawings of the Tybrind Vig finds. 

Bender Jørgensen, Lise; ‘Stone-Age Textiles in North Europe’ in Textiles in Northern Archaeology, Textile Symposium in York, North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles Monograph 3, NESAT III; London Archetype Publications, 1990; pgs. 1-10; ISBN 1-873132-05-0.

English; This article also discusses the nalbound finds from Tybrind Vig, 4,200 BC, and a bit on the Bolkilde finds fron 3,400 BC. Includes drawings of the Tybrind Vig finds and one of the Bolkilde fragments.

Bennett, Wendell C. & Bird, Junius B.; Andean Culture History; Handbook Series No. 15; second and revised edition; ©The American Museum of Natural History; A publication of the Anthropological Handbook Fund, New York, 1960; pgs. 1-6, 112, 257-299.

English; Gives a brief discussion of the nalbinding variant known as ”needle knitting” found in Peru prior to the arrival of the Spanish. (Most likely Nazca and Paracas cultures, c200 BC-c200 AD.)

Bennike, Pia & Ebbesen, Klaus & Bender Jørgensen, Lise; ‘Early neolithic skeletons from Bolkilde bog, Denmark’ in Antiquity, LX, No. 230, November 1986; Antiquity Publications Ltd., Cambridge, 1986; pgs. 199-209; ISSN 0003-598X.

English; While mostly discussing the skeletons, this article also discusses the few pieces of nalbinding found with the bodies. It is interesting to note that the diagram given that is supposedly accurate for all three pieces does not match the picture of one of the Bolkilde fragments found in Bender Jørgensen, Lise; ‘Stone-Age Textiles in North Europe’.

Bock, Franz; Geschichte der liturgischen Gewänder des Mittelalters II; Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz, Austria, 1970; pgs. 1-10, 131-148, 342-354, Taf. VII, XIX, XX, L.

German; Provides nice drawings, though no structural diagrams, of a number of ecclesiastical gloves. Some of which are nalbound.

Bolland, Rita; Tellem Textiles: Archaeological finds from Burial caves in Mali’s Bandiagara Cliff; Mededelingen van het Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde, Leiden, No. 27; trans. by Patricia Wardle; Royal Tropical Institute (KIT), Amsterdam, 1991; ISBN 90-6832-224-9 (KIT Press); ISBN 90-71310-45-0 (Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde).

English; Includes one item made using the simple buttonhole/blanket stitch variant and another item that has some buttonhole filling. It includes numerous woven articles. The occupation of the caves date from the 11th century to the 16th century. 

Böttcher, Gudrun. "Nadelbindungstechnik: Mittelalterlicher Textilfund in Müsen – Nachbildunsversuch" in Experimentelle Archäologie: Bilanz 1991 Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Nordwestdeutschland. Beiheft 6. by Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde und Vorgeschichte. Oldenburg: Isensee, 1991: 331-338. ISSN: 0170-5776

German; Includes information on and a stitch diagram for the Müsen fragment.

Braun, Joseph; Die Liturgische Gewandung Im Occident Und Orient: Nach Ursprung Und Entwicklung, Verwendung Und Symbolik (1907); LaVergne, TN: Kessinger Publishing, 2010. ISBN 1161111026 (Print on Demand facsimile reprint)

German; Of particular interest is the section discussing ecclesiastical gloves. Has pictures and brief description of technique for a number of gloves including two that are nalbound.

Briansdotter, Sigrid; Nålbinding: The Åsle Mitten Stitch: An Instruction Manual: U (U) O/U O:U OO F1+1; © Anne Marie Decker; Tangle Fairies, Snohomish WA, 2000; ISBN 0-9708354-0-X.

English; Provides detailed information on the actual Åsle Mitten and detailed instructions, with clear diagrams, on  how to reproduce the stitch and  use it to make a number of different items.

Brodén, Märta; Nålbindning; LTs förlag, LTK, Stockholm; Centraltryckeriet AB, Borås, 1973; ISBN 91-36-00303-4.

Swedish; A book  with instructions, including diagrams, for the UOOO/UUUOO F2 variant. It also includes a brief history of nalbinding, descriptions of the best  types of wool to use, instructions for socks, mittens, scarves, and hats, and methods for fulling the object. Includes a Swedish-Danish word list.

Brodén, Märta; Nålbindning, Handledning; andra upplagan (2nd edition); LTs förlag, LTK, Stockholm; Centraltryckeriet AB, Borås, 1972; ISBN 91-36-00153-8.

Swedish; A short book with instructions, but no diagrams, for the UOOO/UUUOO F1 variant. Includes directions for child and adult sized socks, men’s mitten, and directions for fulling the item.

Burnham, Dorothy K.; ‘Coptic Knitting: An Ancient Technique’ in Textile History, Vol. 3 December 1972; ed. by K. G. Ponting and Dr S. D. Chapman; The Pasold Research Fund LTD, England, 1972; pgs. 116-124.

English; Explains that the Egyptian socks from the 4th – 6th centuries AD while appearing to be constructed using the Crossed Eastern Knitting method are actually made using a variant of nalbinding which she refers to as ”single-needle knitting”. Includes diagrams and explanations of the method and heel formation. 

Bush, Nancy; Folk Knitting in Estonia: A Garland of Symbolism, Tradition and Technique; Interweave Press, Loveland, Colorado, 1999; ISBN 1-883010-43-8; pgs. 26-27.


Bush, Nancy; ‘Nålbinding – From the Iron Age to Today’ in Piecework Vol. IX N. 3, May / June 2001; Interweave Press, 2001; pgs. 28-32.

English; A brief history of nalbinding with some excellent photographs. Includes the best photo I have seen of the red Egyptian nalbound hat with cross-knit nalbound tassel.

Caulfeild, S. F. A. & Saward, Blanche C.; Encyclopedia of Victorian Needlework [Dictionary of Needlework]; Vol. I, A-L; an unabridged republication of the second edition (1887) of the work originally published by A. W. Cowan, London, in 1882 under the title The Dictionary of Needlework: An Encyclopedia of Artistic, Plain, and Fancy Needlework; Dover Publications, Inc. New York, 1972; pgs. 56, 57, 88, 89, 94, 95, 186, ?, 190, 191, 238-240, 253-256; ISBN 0-486-22800-2; Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 79-182103.

English; Includes various needle laces based off or including buttonhole variants. Useful for analyzing cross-over structures.

Caulfeild, S. F. A. & Saward, Blanche C.; Encyclopedia of Victorian Needlework [Dictionary of Needlework]; Vol. II, M-Z and Supplement; an unabridged republication of the second edition (1887) of the work originally published by A. W. Cowan, London, in 1882 under the title The Dictionary of Needlework: An Encyclopedia of Artistic, Plain, and Fancy Needlework; Dover Publications, Inc. New York, 1972; pgs. 403-410, 446, 447, 453-457, 464, 469, 511-513; ISBN 0-486-22801-0; Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 79-182103.

English; see above

Claßen-Büttner, Ulrike. Nadelbinden – Was ist denn das? Geschichte und Technik einer fast vergessenen Handarbeit. Norderstedt: Books on Demand GmbH, 2012. ISBN 978-3-8482-0124-2.

German; Contains both information regarding the history of nalbinding and instructions.

Claßen-Büttner, Ulrike. Nalbinding – What in the World Is That? History and Technique of an Almost Forgotten Handicraft. Norderstedt: Books on Demand, 2015. ISBN 978-3-7347-7905-3.

English; Contains both information regarding the history of nalbinding and instructions. Note: This is the color English version obtainable from the German sites (US version is Black & White).

Claßen-Büttner, Ulrike. Nalbinding – What in the World Is That? History and Technique of an Almost Forgotten Handicraft. Norderstedt: Books on Demand, 2015. ISBN 978-3-7347-8775-1.

English; Contains both information regarding the history of nalbinding and instructions. Note: This is the black & white US version. There is an English color version available via the German sites.

Collin, Maria; ‘Sydda vantar’ in Fataburen; 1917; pgs. 71-78.

Swedish; Discusses Swedish nålbinding of the early 20th cent. Includes diagram instructions for the UOU/OUOO F1, UO/UOO F1, and UOO/UUOO F2 variants. The last is particularly interesting as the diagrams and the accompaning photo are directly out of Louise Schinnerer’s ”Antike Handarbeiten” which is the first book in which a variant of nålbinding is diagramed.

Collingwood, Peter; The Maker’s Hand, A Close Look at Textile Structures; Lark Books, Asheville, NC & Interweave Press, Loveland, Colorado, 1987; pgs. 9, 14-33, 44-45; ISBN 0-937274-26-7.

English; Includes pictures and diagrams of a number of items made using buttonhole variants, a pair of  Norwegian mittens made using UOOOO/UUUUOO F1, and a pair of socks from Oman that uses a very unusual variant possibly classified as UUOO/UUU/OOO/UUUOO. 

Dahl, Hjördis; Högsäng och Klädbod: Ur Svenskbygdernas Textilhistoria; Skrifter utg. av Sv. Litteratursällskapet I Finland NR 544, ISSN 0039-6842; Folklivsstudier XVIII, ISSN 0085-0764; Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland (Tryckeri och Tidnings Ab), Helsingfors (Borga), 1987; pgs. 342-345; ISBN 951-9018-36-0.

Swedish; Includes a brief section on the nalbinding of the Swedish speaking parts of  Finland. Gives a diagram of a variant where the intersection is split not just turned around, UOO≠UUOO F1.

Danielson, Sofia; Hand och tanke; 100 år textil; Nordiska museet, Stockholm, 1973; pgs, 26-28; ISBN 91-7108-059-7.

Swedish; A brief discussion on Märta Brodén and her nalbinding background. Includes diagrams for variant UO/UOO, although #2 & #3 don’t make sense, and Brodén’s sock.

Daugherty, Robin Taylor; ‘A Treasure Pouch in Simple Looping’ in Piecework Vol. II N. 1, January/February 1994; Interweave Press, 1994; pgs. 66-69.

English; Directions for making a small pouch in the simple buttonhole variant.

Davidson, D. S.; ‘Australian Netting and Basketry Techniques’ in The Journal of the Polynesian Society; 1933; pgs. 257-299.

English; Discusses Australian netting and Basketry techniques including simple loop, loop and twist, and hourglass variants.

Davidson, D. S.; ‘Knotless netting in America and Oceania’ in American Anthropologist, New Series, 37; 1935; pgs. 117-134.

English; Discusses American Continent and Pacific Island nalbinding. Includes diagrams of many buttonhole variations, loop & twist variations, hourglass variations, and the O/UO B1 & U/OO F3 variants. 

Dépôt de la Paroisse de Delémont; Color photo of the socks of St. Germain (most probably his relic) ~ 5 inches by 5 inches (arranged as in the article by Stekoffer) and a photocopy of what appears to be the information card that would go with them at the museum.

French; Has English translation below it.

de Dillmont, Thérèse; Encyclopedia of Needlework; D.M.C Library; Editions Th. De Dillmont, Mulhouse, France, 1975.

English; Includes various needle laces based off or including buttonhole/blanket and loop & twist variants. Useful for analysis purposes.

de Dillmont, Therese; Encyclopedia of Needlework; New Edition, revised and enlarged; D.M.C Library; Bracken Books, London, 1987; ISBN 1-85170-014-5.

English; See above.

De Moor, Antoine. 3500 Years of Textile Art. Tielt: Lannoo, 2008. ISBN 9789020981032.

English; Pgs. 72, 74, & 130-131 discuss 721-01a,b, the pair of colorful child's socks of the Phoebus Foundation's collection (formerly Katoen Natie). Pgs. 74-75 & 220-221 discuss the Fatamid blue & white open-loop knitted sock and 3 fragments in the collection.

De Moor, Antoine, Cäcilia Fluck, M. Van Strydonck, and M. Boudin. "Radiocarbon dating of Late Roman woolen socks from Egypt," In [Textiles, tools and techniques of the 1st millennium AD from Egypt and neighbouring countries. Proceedings of the 8th conference of the research group ‘Textiles from the Nile Valley,’ Antwerp, 4-6 October 2013,] ed. Antoine De Moor, Cäcilia Fluck, and Petra Linscheid, p. 131-136. Tielt: Lannoo Publishers, 2015. ISBN 9789401432405.

English; The radiocarbon dating of 12 cross-knit looping variant socks: 1936-1897, the Purple sock in the V&A; 721-01a,b, the colorful pair in the Phoebus Foundation's collection (formerly Katoen Natie); EA 53912, the colorful child's sock in the British Museum; UC 16766, the pair of socks in the Petrie Museum; EA 53913, the brown sock in the British Museum; ACO TX 2497, the colorful child's sock in the Royal Museums of Art and History, Brussels; 2085-1900, the pair of red socks in the V&A, 1287-1904, the red & yellow child's sock in the V&A, E 32318, the child's sock in the Louvre; 1901-0314.35, the red sock in the British Museum's Britain, Europe, and Prehistory department; 1243-1904, the patched brown sock in the V&A; and 27876, the ribbed child's sock in the Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin.

Dransart, Penelope, and Helen Wolfe. Textiles from the Andes. Northampton, Mass: Interlink Books, 2012. ISBN: 978-1-56656-859-3.

English; Peruvian and Andean textiles in the collection of the British Museum dating from the Paracas period, 200 BC, the late 18th century. Includes items of simple looping and cross-knit looping. Beautiful color photos and some very nice extreme close-ups.

Drew Bear, M., DARMC, R. Talbert, Sean Gillies, Johan Åhlfeldt, Jeffrey Becker, and Tom Elliott, "Antinoopolis: a Pleiades place resource," in Pleiades: A Gazetteer of Past Places, Last modified Sep 01, 2017 10:59 PM. Accessed on June 21, 2019.

English; Does not contain any information regarding nalbinding. However, is extremely useful for locating ancient place names in Egypt. This particular one is set on Antinoopolis. All content in Pleiades: A Gazetteer of Past Places is distributed under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution license (cc-by).

Dyer, Joanne, Diego Tamburini, Elisabeth R. O’Connell, and Anna Harrison. "A multispectral imaging approach integrated into the study of Late Antique textiles from Egypt." in PLoS ONE 13(10): e0204699 (October 4, 2018). Accessed November 17, 2019.

English; Contains pictures of the colorful child's sock in the British Museum under multiple spectrums of light and discusses the protocols of using multispectral imaging to assist with dye analysis of textiles. 

Explore Fayoum. "UNEXPECTED TREASURES 30 YEARS OF EXCAVATIONS IN UM EL BURIGAT (TEPTYNIS) AT CAIRO MUSEUM." Cultural Heritage of the Fayoum. Published April 16, 2019. Accessed May 24, 2019.

English; Blog post with pictures of the exhibition, including a cross-knit variant sock.

Finch, Karen; Summary in English of; Åsle Vanten: Description and Pattern; by Lundwall, Eva & Nockert, Margreta; Riksantikvarieämbetets Textilsektion, Stockholm, 1982.

English; A description of the Åsle mitten including a supposed # of stitches per row pattern that is not correct (at least in the finger area). However it does include information on how the fringe was made.

Fluck, Cäcilia, Gisela Helmecke, Elisabeth R. O’Connell, and Elisabeth Ehler ed. Egypt: Faith After the Pharaohs. London: British Museum, 2015. ISBN 978-0-7141-5114-4.

English; Includes an image of the multi-colored cross-knit variant child's sock in the British Museum, EA 53913. Caption mentions it was found with a sandal.

Fluck, Cäcilia, and Kathrin Mälck. "Radiocarbon analysed textiles in the Skulpturensammlung und Museum für Byzantinische Kunst, Berlin" in Methods of dating ancient textiles of the 1st millennium AD from Egypt and neighbouring countries : proceedings of the 4th meeting of the study group ‘Textiles from the Nile Valley’, Antwerp, 16-17 April 2005, edited by Antoine De Moor and Cäcilia Fluck, 150-165. Tielt (Belgium): Lannoo Publishers, 2007. ISBN 9789020970982.

English; Includes an image of the red woolen hat with blue and yellow stranded cross-knit looping tube before the tassel. Provides corrected dating based on radiocarbon dating results and corrected find location.

Frazén, Anne Marie; ‘En medeltida socka i nålning’ in Uppland: årsbok; Upplands fornminnesforening; 1963; pgs. 38-47.

Swedish; Discusses the sock found in Uppsala made using the UOO/UUOO variant, dating to the Late Middle Ages. Includes many good photos of the sock, some needles, and a sock from Söderköping from the Middle Ages along with a mitten of much more recent origin.

Frazén, Mari-Louise; email correspondence; 07 July 2000.

Flury-v. Bültzingslöwen, Regina, and Dr. Edgar Lehmann. "Nichtgewebte Textilien vor 1400 / IX. Teil." Wirkerei- und Strickerei- Technik: Fachzeitschrift für die Fabrikationspraxis und Betriebstechnik der Wirkerei- und Strickerei-Industrie 1955 (5): 38-41.

German; Includes some of the only published photographs of the Coptic nalbound socks in the Museum der Kulturen, Basel, collection.

Gagneux-Granade, Marguerite. L’Homme et les Mailles: histoire critique des mailles textiles : filets, réseaux, tricot, crochet. Bordeaux: Éditions INsensées, 2016. ISBN 978-2-9558095-0-1.

French; Chapter 3 covers the nalbound objects: The socks from Utah, Bilum, Urumchi Beret, Peruvian bags and figural work, Pierre de Courtalay's gloves, the bag from Namur, Maria d'Aragon's handcovering from Burgos, the Egyptian socks in Nantes, Lyon, Louvre, Petrie Museum, V&A Museum, Kateon Natie's radio carbon dating, Royal Ontario Museum, Dura Europos, Mons Claudianus, Masada, Hubei, Central African contemporary hats, Asle mitten, MAK, Florence, Finland, Delemont, York, etc. Includes badly reproduced photographs taken by the author during her examinations, thus not available elsewhere. Also includes a chapter on knitting with such photographs.

Gagneux-Granade, Marguerite, and Anastasia Ozoline. "Quelques objets surprenants en textile non tissé dans les réserves du musée Bénaki" in ΜΟΥΣΕΙΟ ΜΠΕΝΑΚΗ 9, 2009 (Athens 2010): 99-111. doi:

French; Analysis of a nalbound glove in the Benaki Museum. Includes comparables with the Coppergate sock, Schinnerer's diagrams of the sock in the MAK, and a drawing of the mitten in Iceland. Also includes a photo of one of the pairs of Coptic socks in the Musée Dobrée.

Gagneux-Granade, Marguerite, and Anastasia Ozoline. "Quelques objets surprenants en textile non tissé dans les réserves du musée Bénaki" in ΜΟΥΣΕΙΟ ΜΠΕΝΑΚΗ 8, 2008: 123-135. Accessed November 10, 2019.

French; Appears to be exactly the same article as that in ΜΟΥΣΕΙΟ ΜΠΕΝΑΚΗ 9, 2009. However, the imagery is of slightly lesser resolution.

Gallazzi, Claudio, and Gisèle Hadji-Minaglou. Trésors inattendus: 30 ans de fouilles et de coopération à Tebtynis (Fayoum): Le Caire, Musée égyptien 4 février – 4 avril 2019. 2019. ISBN 978-2-7247-0747-2.

French; Includes a catalog entry, 136, for the cross-knit variant sock found in Tebtynis. Image shows mostly the ankle and heel/heel cup remaining with a small portion of the instep.

Gauslaa, Torbjørg; ‘Nålbinding’ in Norsk Husflid Vol. 3, 1976; pgs. 4-14.

Norwegian; Includes a short history of nalbinding and instructions, with pictures, for variant UOOO/UUUOO F2. Has a picture of the mitten from Oslo’s Old Town c 1100’s.

Gayet, Albert. Le costume en Egypte du IIIe au XIIIe siècle Palais du costume, Exposition Universelle de 1900. Paris: E. Leroux, 1900. Accessed January 1, 2020.

French; Contains a drawing of a sock from Deir el-dyk that is extremely similar to the sock in the British Museum and the one in the Museum der Kulturen, Basel.

Geijer, Agnes; Birka III: Die Textilfunde aus den Gräbern; Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien; Uppsala, 1938.

German; Describes a type of embroidery that appears to be buttonhole/blanket stitch and occasionally used detached from other backgrounds. She calls it Ösenstich. It is necessary to note that although at one time a German term for the structural equivalent of the blanket stitch variant of nalbinding appears to be Schlingenstich, what Geijer refers to as Schlingenstich in this article is very definitely not nalbinding.

Geijer, Agnes; ‘The Textile Finds from Birka’ in Cloth and Clothing in Medieval Europe: Essays in Memory of Professor E. M. Carus-Wilson, (Pasold Studies in Textile History 2); ed. N. B. Harte & K. G. Ponting; Heinemann Educational Books, The Pasold Research Fund Ltd., 1983; pgs. 80-99; ISBN 0-435-32382-2.

English; Content basically as above but in English. She suggests translating Ösenstich as ”reverse chain-stitch”.

Geijer, Agnes; ‘The Textile Finds from Birka: Birka III, Die Textilfunde aus den Gräbern, revised by author’ in Acta Archaeologica Vol. 50 – 1979, København, 1980; pgs. 209-222.

English; Similar content as above.

Ginsburg, Madeleine, ed. The Illustrated History of Textiles. London: Studio Editions, 1995. Page 148. ISBN 1-85170-446-9.

English; Contains a color image of one of the red pair of cross-knit variant socks in the V&A prior to conservation mounting. Also printed in 1991 & 1993.

Gómez-Moreno, Manuel. El panteón real de las Huelgas de Burgos. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas: Instituto Diego Velázquez, Madrid, 1946. No ISBN.

Spanish; Contains photos and a brief description of a nalbound mitten belonging to María de Aragón, daughter of Jaime II, le sobrevivía en 1331. This attribution has been since questioned. The main part  of the mitten is worked in a sort of patterned buttonhole stitch.

Grass, Milton; ‘The Origins of the Art of Knitting’ in Archaeology Vol 8 No. 3 Autumn (Sept.) 1955; pgs. 184-190.

English; Incorrectly identifies the Dura-Europos fragment and the 3rd-6th cent Egyptian socks as knitting. Does have some nice pictures.

Gustafsson, Kerstin; Gamla Textila Tekniker I Ull; Kerstin Gustafsson och LTs Forlag AB Boktryck, Helsingborg, 1990; pgs, 17-37, 114; ISBN 91-36-02703-0.

Swedish; Provides a brief introdution to nalbinding and its history. Includes instructions, with diagrams, for the UOOO/UUUOO F2, UUUOOO/UUUOOOO F2, UOU/OUOO F2, U(U)O/UO:UOO F1+1, U/OO, and simple buttonhole/blanket variants. 

Haakinsdotter, Elsa (Ruth Decker); ‘Numerical breakdown for hats’; unpublished, 1998.

Decker, Ruth; email coorespondence; cites Paths towards a Stratified Society by Ingegerd Sarlvik in the series Stockholm Studies in Archaeology; Spring 2000.

Decker, Ruth; email coorespondence; ‘How to shape a hat, by the numbers’; Spring 2000.

Hald, Margrethe; Ancient Danish Textiles from Bogs And Burials: A Comparative Study of Costume and Iron Age Textiles; Publications of The National Museum of Denmark; Archaeological Historical Series XXI; Translated by Jean Olsen; Fyens Stiftsbogtrykkeri, Copenhagen, 1980; ISBN 87-480-0312-3.

English; Provides a classification system for nalbinding or "looped needle netting."  Gives a history of nalbinding describing many items. Provides pictures, instructions, and more often diagrams for many variations. The simple variants are included under the 'sewing and embroidery' and 'mesh stitch' categories. Good intro book.

Hald, Margrethe. "Lundavanten" in Kulturen: en årsbok till medlemmarna av kulturhistoriska foreningen for södra Sverige. Kulturhistoriska foreningen, 1945. Pgs. 80-83.

Danish; Describes a Middle Ages mitten from Lund. Gives diagram of UO/UOO F1.

Hansen, Egon H.; ‘Nalebinding: definition and description’ in Textiles in Northern Archaeology, Textile Symposium in York, North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles Monograph 3, NESAT III; London Archetype Publications, 1990; pgs. 21-27; ISBN 1-873132-05-0.

English; Provides a classification system for nalbinding and a proposed definition. Includes structural pictures for a number of variants.

Hansen, Egon H.; ‘Nålebinding og brikvævning fra Mammengraven: Mammenhøvding eller kvide?’ in Mammen : Grav, kunst og samfund i vikingetid; ed. Mette Iversen; Jysk Arkæologisk Selskabs Skrifter XXVIII, 1991; pgs. 145-148; ISBN 87-7288-571-8; ISSN 0107-2854.

Danish; Describes the Mammen Pennants. Classifications appears to be backwards, i.e. seen from the other side.

d’Harcourt, Raoul; Textiles of Ancient Peru and their Techniques; trans. by Sadie Brown; ed. by Grace G. Denny and Carolyn M. Osborne; University of Washington Press, Seattle, 1962; Library of Congress CCN 62-17150.

English; Includes a large section on the figures done in ”loop stitch’ on the Paracas Textile and some other items from Peru between 200 BC – 200 AD.

Harris, Jennifer ed.; Textiles, 5,000 Years: an international history and illustrated survey; © The Trustees of the British Museum; Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York, 1993; pg. 48.

English; Has a nice color picture of a 2nd cent. AD sock from Egypt and includes part of Burnham’s diagram for ’crossed-loop knitting’. This book does recognize it is not Knitting.

Hilton Price, Frederick George. A Catalogue of the Egyptian Antiquities in the Possession of F.G. Hilton Price. London: B. Quaritch, 1897. Page 14 (page 36 of the scan), Number 89. (BW scan) or (Color scan) Both Accessed 9 May 2020.

English; Contains a two line description of the sock now in the National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh: A.1911.315. Refers to it as "knitted."

Hopkins, Heather, and Katrin Kania. Ancient Textiles Modern Science II. Havertown: Oxbow Books, Limited, 2018.


Hoskins, Nancy Arthur; Universal Stitches for weaving, embroidery, and other fiber arts; distributed by the University of Washington Press, Seattle and London; Skein Publications, Eugene, OR, 1982, second printing 1985; ISBN 0-295-96274-7; Library of Congress Catalog Card number 82-80789.

English; Includes diagrams for a number of buttonhole variants and a picture of a Nazca (c 0-200AD) necklace sized ceremonial circlet of birds and flowers.

Hutchinson, Elaine; ‘Nalebinding: the history origins, construction and use of ‘needle-binding’ with specific reference to the ‘Coopergate sock’’; May 1992; Regia Anglorum Publications, 1995;

English; While focusing primarily on the Coppergate sock it aslo includes some history.

Joseph, Marjory L.; Introductory Textile Science: Second Edition; Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., USA, 1966, 1972; ISBN 0-03-086679-0; Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 70-171525.

English; Includes a table of: coiling (simple loop), (figure-of-eight stitch), (simple loop with knitting effect), coiling with foundation, and Vantsöm (half knot) which doesn’t look like any vantsöm I’ve seen.

片岡, 淳 [Kataoka, Jun]. "イランの編み靴「ギーヴェ」の製法について [Making of the traditional “Giveh" shoe in Iran]" in 琉球大学教育学部紀要 82 [Bulletin of Faculty of Education University of the Ryukyus 82] (March 2003): 89-97. Accessed December 5, 2019. ISSN: 1345-3319

Japanese: Includes one diagram of a stitch used in traditional Iranian Giveh. (Diagram is inconsistent.) Article includes images that show that there are more than just one variant used.

Kaukonen, Toini-Inkeri; ‘Kinnasompelun levinneisyys ja tyotavat Suomessa’ in Suomen museo, Vol. 67; Suomen muinaismuistoyhdistys, Helsinki, 1960; pgs. 44-73.

Finnish; Discusses nalbinding in Finland. Includes photos of several pieces, both old and modern. Includes diagrams of a number of variants. Has a summary in German.

Kaukonen, Toini-Inkeri; Suomalaiset kansanpuvut ja kansallispuvut; WSOY; Werner Söderström, Osakeyhtiö, Porvoo, Helsinki, Juva, 1985; pgs. 93-99, 366; ISBN 951-0-12794-9; Title translated as ”Finnish Folk Costumes and Present-Day use of ’National Dresses’”.

Finnish; Includes a brief section on nalbinding.

Keller, Karl-Fredrik, and Erik Schia. Middelalderbyen i Oslo: en rekonstruksjon. Oslo: Keller/Nagelhus, 2004. ISBN 82-91455-00-7

Norwegian; Includes an image of the Oslo mitten. 

Kendrick, A. F.; Catalogue of Textiles From Burying-Grounds in Egypt; Vol. II. Period of Transition and of Christian Emblems; Victoria and Albert Museum, Department of Textiles; London, 1921.

English; Catalogs incorrectly as knitting a some Egyptian socks from 4th –5th cent. AD.

King, Mary Elizabeth; Ancient Peruvian Textiles from the Collection of the Textile Museum Washington D.C. The Museum of Primitive Art New York; Introduction and notes by King; The Museum of Primitive Art, New York, 1965; Library of Congress CCN: 65-28305.

English; Includes a picture of one item borders using simple and cross-knit looping variants from the proto- or early- Nazca time frame.

King, Mary Elizabeth; Textiles and Basketry of the Paracas Period, Ica Valley, Peru; reprinted from DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS, Vol. 26, No. 3; University Microfilms, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1965.

English; A Ph.D. dissertation which includes numerous catalog entries for items made in, or embellished with, simple and cross-knit variants. Of greatest interest are the animal figurines and the shirts.

Kissel, Mary Lois; ‘Basketry of the Papago and Pima’ in the Anthropological Papers of The American Museum of Natural History, Vol. XVII, Part IV; by order of the trustees of the American Museum of Natural History, New York, 1916.

English; Includes description, pictures, and diagrams of ”lace coiling” as used by the Papago and Pima tribes found in Southern Arizona.

Köstner, Barbara. "Roman and Late Roman nalbinding socks from Egypt: Bringing ‘Egyptian fashion’ to the North" in Excavating, analysing, reconstructing Textiles of the 1st millennium AD from Egypt and neighbouring countries: Proceeding of the 9th conference of the research group ‘Textiles from the Nile Valley’ Antwerp, 27-29 November 2015, edited by Antoine De Moor, Cäcilia Fluck, and Petra Linscheid. Tielt, Belgium: Lannoo Publishers, 2017. ISBN 978 94 014 4399 9.

English; Includes multiple pictures of cross-knit variant socks. Particularly those in the ROM. Includes the best printed catalog listing of extant Egyptian socks. Does not include the compound variants, but does address some in the text/captions.

Köstner, Barbara. "Wearing socks in sandals: The height of Roman fashion?" in Small Finds & Ancient Social Practices in the Northwest Provinces of the Roman Empire edited by Stefanie Hoss and Alissa Whitmore. Oxford & Philadelphia: Oxbow Books, 2016. Pages 16-27. ISBN 978-1-78570-256-3.

English; Includes several woven socks, carvings and paintings, and the pair of children's socks in the Phoebus Foundation collection in Antwerp and the Red adult pair in the V&A.

Lafontaine-Dosogne, Jacqueline, and Daniel De Jonghe. Textiles coptes, des Musées Royaux d’Art et d’Histoire. Bruxelles: Les Musées Royaux, 1988.

French; Includes  left and right side, blank and white, photos of Tx. 2497, the child's sock from Antinoe in the Musées Royaux d'Art et d'Histoire collection. Book clearly discusses it as knitted, including an open loop knitting diagram. The sock is not open loop knitting. 

Lehtosalo-Hilander, Pirkko-Liisa; Ancient Finnish Costumes; The Finnish Archaeological Society, 1984; ISBN 951-99605-4-6;

English; Provides the history of the reconstruction of the Finnish costume and in particular the Eura Constume based on grave finds from the early part of the 11th cent. It briefly mentions the nalbinding found in Grave 56 but refers to it as “sewn mitten technique.”

Lehtosalo-Hilander, Pirkko-Liisa; Luistari I: The Graves; Suomen Muinaismuistoyhdistyksen Aikakauskirja Finska Fornminnesföreningens Tidskrift 82:1; Helsinki, 1982; ISBN 951-9056-46-7; ISBN 951-9056-47-5; ISSN 0355-1822; Note bound as one volume with 82:2, 82:3, & 83:1.

English & Finnish; Archaeological findings of the Luistari Cemetary in Eura, Finland dating to the 11th cent. Most important is grave 56 and there are some nice photos of it. There is also a photo of the actual piece of nalbinding, however the variant isn’t mentioned.

Lehtosalo-Hilander, Pirkko-Liisa; Luistari II: The Artefacts; Suomen Muinaismuistoyhdistyksen Aikakauskirja Finska Fornminnesföreningens Tidskrift 82:2; Helsinki, 1982; ISBN 951-9056-46-7; ISBN 951-9056-48-3; ISSN 0355-1822; Note bound as one volume with 82:1, 82:3, & 83:1.

English & Finnish; Continued archaeological record. Mentions that Grave 56 is dated to c. 1000-1070 AD and gives mention of other graves from the same time.

Lehtosalo-Hilander, Pirkko-Liisa; Luistari III: A Burial-Ground Reflecting The Finnish Viking Age Society; Suomen Muinaismuistoyhdistyksen Aikakauskirja Finska Fornminnesföreningens Tidskrift 82:3; Helsinki, 1982; ISBN 951-9056-46-7; ISBN 951-9056-49-1; ISSN 0355-1822; Note bound as one volume with 82:1, 82:2, & 83:1.

English & Finnish; Cont. from above. Mentions evidence they made ”sewn mittens.”

Leinonen, Kaisa Marika; Neulakinnasperinne Suomessa; Joensuun yliopisto; Savonlinnan Opettajankoulutuslaitos; Pro gradu –tutkielma, Huhtikuu 2000; (Tradition of Nålebinding Mittens in Finland; ?; Savolinna Department of Teacher Education; Master’s Thesis, April 2000); pgs. 1-95; English Abstract; on Microfiche.

Finnish; Discusses the current tradition of nalbinding in Finland today. Mentions that the tradition is best preserved amongst the Carelians. Provides diagrams for UUOO/UUOOO F1, UUOOUU/OOUUOOO F1, and a variant that the intersection point is twisted into a loop before the new thread is drawn through, classified something like UUOO(Udown)O/UUUOOU F1.

Leslie, Catherine Amoroso. Needlework Through History: An Encyclopedia. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-313-33548-8.

English; Includes an entry for "Single Needle Knitting," mentions several find locations in passing, but nothing in depth. Further reading includes the old location of this site.

Levey, S. M.; ’Illustrations of the History of Knitting Selected from the Collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum’ in Textile History 1968-70, Vol. I No. I; ed. by K. G. Ponting; David & Charles Ltd., Great Britain, 1971; ISBN 0-7153-5166-4; pgs. 183-205.


Ligon, Linda C.; ‘The Ubiquitous Loop’ in Piecework Vol. II N. 1, January/February 1994; Interweave Press, 1994; pgs. 64-66.

English; Discusses items made using the simple buttonhole/blanket variant. Has a picture of a Native American sock, a bag, and some other items.

DeLuco, Pam; ‘The Chácara of the Ngöbe Woman: Handspun string bags from Panama’ in Spin-Off, Vol. XXV, No. 2, Summer 2001; Interweave Press, Inc., 2001; pgs. 62-65.

English; Discusses the entire process in making the bags and has diagrams of two stitch variants, simple buttonhole and O/UO F1?.

Mallory, J. P., and Victor H. Mair. The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West. London: Thames & Hudson, 2000. p. 214. ISBN 0-500-05101-1.

English; Describes the beret-like hat as nalbinding and another as knitting.

Mair, Victor H. "Ancient Mummies of the Tarim Basin" Expedition Magazine 58.2 (2016): Expedition Magazine. Penn Museum, 2016 Web. 25 Apr 2019

English; Does not contain any information on the nalbinding. Provided solely as background information on the Tarim mummies.

Manninen, Ilmari; Pohjoisen Karjalan vanhanaikainen talous; historiallisten lähteiden mukaan; Historiallisia tutkimuksia V; Suomen historiallinen seura; Helsinki, 1992.

Finnish; Mentions Russian Mittens but I can’t read it well enough to be sure.

Martinson, Kate; ‘Scandinavian Nålbinding; Needle Looped Fabric’ in Weaver’s Journal XII, No. 2, Issue 46; Fall 1987.

English; Brief discussion of nalbinding and instructions with diagrams for UOOO/UUUOO F2. Also give brief directions for finishing (fulling) an item.

Mašek, Andrea. "Coole Socke: Ein Hoch auf die Häkelkunst der alten Ägypter." Museum der Kulturen, Basel. Last modified February 1, 2019. Last accessed May 10, 2019.

German & English: The site is in German and thus the header and outer materials, but the interview questions and responses are in English. Anne Marie Decker and Cary Karp were interviewed regarding their January 17, 2019 visit to the Museum der Kulturen Basel depot to examine items in the collection.

Matheson, Susan B. Art for Yale: A History of the Yale University Art Gallery. New Haven, Conn: Yale University Art Gallery, 2001. ISBN 9780894679551.

English: Kept more for the history of the development of the Yale University Art Gallery, Page 163 includes an image of Chokwe Civilization Mwana Pwo Mask of the 20th century Africa that has simple looping.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art; Peruvian Textiles, Examples of the Pre-Incaic Period; New York, 1930.

English; Gives a good breakdown of the cultural time frames in Peru. Includes a picture of a neck ornament, humming birds & flowers, made in the cross-knit variant, here called ”knitted.”

Müller-Christensen, Sigrid & Kubach, Hans Erich & Stein, Günter; ‘Die Gräber im Königschor’ in Der Dom zu Speyer Vol. 2 (Textband); Hans Erich Kubach and Walter Haas, eds.; Deutscher Kunstverlag, Münich, 1972; ISBN 3-422-00539-0; see also Pict. 1464 in Der Dom zu Speyer Vol. 1 (Bildband) ); Hans Erich Kubach and Walter Haas, eds.; Deutscher Kunstverlag, Münich, 1972; ISBN 3-422-00539-0.

German; The Textband mentions a silk glove fragment, the Bildband has a picture of it, from 1056AD?. The footnote includes mention of a few other items. The Textband also includes catalog mentions of another silk glove/mitten and one linen one.

Müller-Christensen, Sigrid, ed.; Sakrale Gewänder des Mittelalters: Ausstellung im Bayerischen Nationalmuseum München, 8. Juli bis 25. September 1955; Hirmer Verlag München, 1955.

German; Includes in the catalog a linen mitten from the middle of the 1200’s.

Munksgaard, Elisabeth; ‘Kopien af dragten fra Mammengraven’ in Mammen : Grav, kunst og samfund i vikingetid; ed. Mette Iversen; Jysk Arkæologisk Selskabs Skrifter XXVIII, 1991; pgs. 151-153; ISBN 87-7288-571-8; ISSN 0107-2854.

Danish; Regarding the replica of the Mammen clothing. Includes pictures of how they think the pennants were worn.

Nahlik, Adam; Tkaniny Wełniane Importowane i Miejscowe Nowogrodu Wielkiego X-XV Wieku; French summary trans. by Jadwiga Packiewizcówna; Zakład Narodowy Imienia Ossolińskich Wydawnictwo Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Wrocław / Warszawa / Kraków, 1964; (No ISBN listed in this rebound book).

Polish; Archaeological work including mention of 9 nalbound fragments found in Novgorod. Gives diagrams and instructions for the UO/UOO variant.

Nargi, Lela. Knitting Around the World: A Multistranded History of a Time-Honored Tradition. Minneapolis: Voyageur Press, 2011. ISBN 9780760337943.

English; Primarily about knitting, it does include a section on nalbinding including several of my images. Yes, those are my thumbs. Also includes an image of a late 18th century Estonian mitten

Nelson, Lila; ‘Toothbrush Handle Rugs; Nålbinding with Rags’ in Weaver’s Journal XII, No. 2, Issue 46; Fall 1987.

English; Discusses the history of Toothbrush rugs in America and their relation to nalbinding in other materials. Includes instructions adapted from the Nebraska Extension Service.

Nockert, Margareta; email correspondence; May 2000.

Nockert, Margareta & Possnert, Göran; Att datera textilier; summary trans. by Roger Tanner; Gidlunds Förlag, Fingraf Tryckeri, Södertälje, 2002; ISBN 91-7844-620-1.

Swedish with an English summary; Has the radiocarbon dating of the Åsle mitten.

Nordiska Museet; Swedish Textiles; ed. Emelie von Walterstorff; Victor Pettersons Bokindutriaktiebolag, Stockholm, 1925; pgs. Intro, 81, fig. 228.

English; Includes a brief explanation of ”sewing of mittens,” ’nålning or vantsöm.’ Gives a diagram of UOO/UUOO F1 and a picture of a mitten from Värmland.

Nordland, Odd. Primitive Scandinavian Textiles in Knotless Netting. Studia Norvegica no. 10. Oslo: Oslo University Press, 1961. No ISBN listed in Book.

English; Source of the second classification system attempted for nalbinding. Includes numerous pictures of items, primarily 19th century.

Nyhlén, Anna-Maja. Hemslöjd – den svenska hemslöjden från 1800-talets slut [1st ed.1968?] (4th ed.1975) s.315-318 ISBN: 91-7114-124-3

Swedish; Primarily an overview of various handicrafts, but does contain a bit about nalbinding in Sweden from late 19th century.

Nylén, Anna-Maja; Swedish Handicraft; trans. Anne-Charlotte Hanes Harvey; Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, 1977; pgs. 315-318; ISBN 0-442-26090-3; ; Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 75-28331.


O’Connell, Elisabeth R. "John de Monins Johnson’s 1913/14 Egypt Exploration Fund expedition to Antinoupolis (Antinoë)" In Antinoupolis II: Scavi e materiali III, ed. R. Pintaudi, 415–66. Florence: Istituto Papirologico G. Vitelli, 2014.

English; The main body of the article mentions the finds of socks briefly, but the most useful part is the appendix which links up objects from the 1913/14 EEF expedition's distribution to 19 of the 25 institution and includes current museum numbers where known. Thus, the blue sock in the Warrington, the two fragments in the Bolton (which must have come in the Textiles Unsorted box), two of the three cross-knit socks in the British Museum, the striped sock in Leicester, the colored sock at the Ashmolean, the fragment in the Te Papa, the child's sock in Brussels, and the sock in Sydney.

O’Neale, Lila M.; ‘Textile Periods in Ancient Peru: II Paracas Caverns and the Grand Necropolis’ in University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol 39, No. 2; University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1942.


Østergård, Else; ‘Textilfragmenterne fra Mammengraven’ in Mammen : Grav, kunst og samfund i vikingetid; ed. Mette Iversen; Jysk Arkæologisk Selskabs Skrifter XXVIII, 1991; pgs. 123-138; ISBN 87-7288-571-8; ISSN 0107-2854.


Øye, Ingvild; Textile Equipment and its Working Environment, Bryggen in Bergen, c 1150-1500; The Bryggen Papers, Main Series 2; Norwegian University Press, 1988; ISBN 82-00-02537-3.


Pfister, Rudolf and Louisa Bellinger. "The textiles: Knitting," in The excavations at Dura-Europos Final Report IV, Part II. ed. Rostovtzeff, M.I., et al. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1945, 54-5.

English; Includes a knitting pattern attempting to reproduce the patterned Dura-Europos fragment. 

Phipps, Elena. The Peruvian Four-Selvaged Cloth: Ancient Threads/New Directions. Fowler Museum Textile Series, No. 12. Los Angeles: Fowler Museum at UCLA, 2014. ISBN: 978-0-98475-505-9.

English; Primarily regarding the woven cloths of Peru including 4-selvedge and discontinuous warp and weft cloths. Page 46-47 has a nice image of on the the cross-knit looping strands of birds sipping from flowers that is in the Fowler Museum. Page 86 has an image of the Paracas Mantle located in the Brooklyn Museum. 

Pomar, Rosa. Portuguese Knitting: A Historical & Practical Guide to Traditional Portuguese Techniques, with 20 Inspirational Projects. Kent: Search Press, 2020. ISBN: 978-1-78221-721-3.

English; Only includes the briefest mention of nalbinding stating that no finds of nalbinding have been found in Portugal. Doe include some very interesting early fragments of knitting.

Priest-Dorman, Carolyn; email coorespondence; cites Sakrale Gewander des Mitteralters by Sigrid Muller-Christinsen; 5 Jan. 2000.

Pritchard, Frances. "A survey of textiles in the UK from the 1913-14 Egypt Exploration Fund season at Antinoupolis" in Drawing the Threads Together: Textiles and Footwear of the 1st Millenium AD from Egypt. Proceedings of the 7th Meeting of the Study Group ‘Textiles from the Nile Valley", Antwerp, 7-9 October 2011, edited by Antoine De Moor, Cäcilia Fluck, and Petra Linscheid, 34-55. Tielt: Lannoo, 2013. ISBN 9789401410830.

English; Includes very nice images of the colorful child's sock in the British Museum, EA 53913, and the green ribbed fragment in the Bolton, 26.1914.30, as well as Jon de Monins Johnson's site photograph of 4 socks from the 1913-14 excavations at Antinoupolis. Also mentioned are the sock in Brussels, the one in Leicester, a fragment in Wellington (NZ), the other fragment in the Bolton, the child's baby sock in the Ashmolean, and the brown sock in the British Museum.

Pritchard, Frances. "Aspects of the Wool Textiles from Viking Age Dublin" in Archaeological Textiles in Northern Europe Report from the 4th NESAT Symposium 1. – 5. May 1990 Copenhagen, edited by Lise Bender Jorgensen & Elisabeth Munksgaard, Tidens Tand, Nr. 5, 1992, pages 93-104. Copenhagen: Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi, 1992. ISBN 87-89730-04-6.

English; Includes a black and white photo of the nalbinding fragment found in the excavations of 10th-12th century Dublin. 

Pritchard, Frances. "Soft-furnishing textiles from the Egypt Exploration Fund season at Antinoupolis, 1913–14" British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan 21 (2014): 45–61. ISSN 2049-5021. Accessed 10 Nov 2019.

English; Mentions two socks in the British Museum and the sock in the Royal Museum of Art and History, Brussels.

Rilly, Claude. The Sudan National Museum in Khartoum: An illustrated guide for visitors. Translated by Solène Marion de Procé. SFDAS 2013 Accessed January 1, 2020.

English; Does not include any information regarding nalbinding. However, it does provide background regarding the history and archaeological exploration of Sudan.

Rothquist Ericsson, Linnéa, Anita Andersson, Håkan Liby, and Olle Norling. Söma, nåla, binda: nålbundet från Uppland. Uppsala: Upplandsmuseet, 2003. ISBN 91-85 618-72-1.

Swedish; Discusses the tradition of nalbinding in Uppland, including the Uppsala sock (with photograph). Includes instructions for a good number of different stitches. However, almost all the diagrams showing how to do each stitch are exactly the same for all the stitches, so you will need to read the words carefully to determine what differentiates each stitch from the others.

Rutt, Richard. A History of Hand Knitting. London: B T Batsford Ltd, 1987 ISBN 0713451181: reprinted Loveland, Colorado: Interweave Press, 1989 ISBN 0-934026-35-1, Library of Congress Catalog Number 87-46353; pgs. 8, 9, 23, 28-30, 243, 244.

English; Primarily on the history of hand knitting, Rutt also includes information on structures readily confused with knitting. He includes information regarding the Dura-Europos fragments and Romano-Egyptian socks.

Rybarczyk, Anna. "Fabrics in Medieval Dress in Pomerania" in Fasciculi Archaeologiae Historicae: From Studies into Ancient Textiles and Clothing fasciculus XXIII. Lódz (Polonia): Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology of Polish Academy of Sciences, 2010: 53-60. PL ISSN 0860-0007

English; Includes color picture of a fragment of a nalbound mitten from Gdansk, site 1, settlement layer 7. Click on title to access link to the article in the Digital Repository of Scientific Institutes. Also available on at both last accessed on 8/1/2020.

Santrot, Marie-Hélène, Marie-Hélène Rutschowscaya, Dominique Bénazeth, and Cécile Giroire. Au fil du Nil: couleurs de l’Égpyte chrétienne; à l’occasion de l’Exposition Au Fil du Nil, Couleurs de l’Égypte Chrétienne; 19 octobre 2001-20 janvier 2002 at the Conseil général de Loire-Atlantique (musée Dobrée). Paris: Somogy éditions d’art, 2001. ISBN: 2-85056-502-4.

French; Contains the images and descriptions of three pairs of cross-knit variant socks found in Gebel Abou Fedah. Catalog entries 27 & 48 (pages 54 & 78). Also includes several images from the conservation of the blue pair and some information therefrom on page 191.  

Sawyer, Alan R. Early Nasca Needlework. London: Laurence King in association with Alan Marcuson, 1997. ISBN: 1-85669-088-1.

English; Contains a good number of examples of cross-knit looping from the Nasca culture. Including some that were still in the process of being worked so woven tape around which they were worked is still visible.  

Schick, Tamar; "Cordage, Basketry and Fabrics" in ‘Antiqot English Series, Vol. XVIII: Nahal Hemar Cave, ed. Ayala Sussmann and Raphael Greenberg. Jerusalem: The Department of Antiquities and Museums in the Ministry of Education and Culture, 1988; pgs. 31-43, Plates XIII, XIV, XV, XVI, XVII, XVIII, XIX, XX. ISSN 0066-488X.

English; Includes images of some of the simple looping fragments and the cross-knit nalbound fragment in the plates. There is also a knotted headdress that is often confused for the fragments of nalbinding.

Schmedding, Brigitta; Mittelalterliche Textilien in Kirchen und Klöstern der Schweiz; Schriften der Abegg-Stiftung Bern, Bern, 1978; pg. 99 of a total 325 pgs.; ISBN 3-7272-9682-8.


Schmitt, Lawrence; Lessons in Nålbinding: Scarves Wimples and more; Larry Schmitt, Cottage Grove, WI, 1996.


Schmitt, Lawrence W.; Mittens, Mittens, Mittens! A Nålbinding Mitten Workbook; Larry Schmitt, Cottage Grove, WI, 1997.


Smeds, Christina; ”Nyfiken på Dalbyvanten”; ett projektarbete vid Datorteket i Transtrand; 29 januari 1999;


Steffensen, Helga; Nålebinding; Borgens Forlag, Printed by Andelsbogtrykkeriet, Odense; ISBN 87-418-3505-0.


Stékoffer, Sarah; ‘4.1 Le trésor de l’Abbaye de Moutier-Grandval’ in La cross mérovingienne de saint Germain, premier abbé de Moutier-Grandval; Office du patrimoine historique – Societe jurassienne d’Emulation, Porrentruy, 1996; 3 pages of a total of 184 pages in the book; ISBN 2-88436-005-0.


Strömberg, Elisabeth; ‘Åslevantens Teknik’ Part II of ‘Åslevanten’ in Nordiska Museets och Skansens Årsbok Fataburen; 1934; see Arbman, Holger.


Talalay, Lauren E., and Margaret Cool Root. Passionate Curiosities: Tales of Collectors & Collections from the Kelsey Museum. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Kelsey Museum of Archaeology, 2015. ISBN: 9780990662334.

English; Page 118 contains a picture of the brown sock fragment with one toe and most of the instep remaining (KM 22558). It also includes an excavation photo of the division of Karanis and Soknopaiou Nesos textiles for partage that was take on May 31st, 1935 that includes same sock fragment.

Teague, Lynn S. Textiles in Southwestern Prehistory. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1998. ISBN 0-8263-1977-7.

English; Includes a picture of one of the socks from the Ancient Pueblos in Arizona, USA. Also discusses finds of similar structure in regions from just north of Arizona, through Arizona and New Mexico, into Mexico.

The Textile Museum; An Introduction to Textile Terms; The Textile Museum, Washington, DC, 1997.


Thomas, Thelma K. “Coptic and Byzantine Textiles Found in Egypt: Corpora, Collections, and Scholarly Perspectives.” In Egypt in the Byzantine World, 2007.

English; Briefly mentions the early finds of "knitting" that in this case refer to finds of the cross-knit nalbinding variant. Most useful for references to early explorers and excavations.

Turnau, Irena; ‘The Diffusion of Knitting in Medieval Europe’ in Cloth and Clothing in Medieval Europe: Essays in Memory of Professor E. M. Carus-Wilson, (Pasold Studies in Textile History 2); ed. N. B. Harte & K. G. Ponting; Heinemann Educational Books, The Pasold Research Fund Ltd., 1983; pgs. 368-389; ISBN 0-435-32382-2.


Turnau, Irena; History of Knitting Before Mass Production; Institute of the History of Material Culture, Polish Academy of Sciences; Warsaw, 1991; ISBN 83-900213-2-3 .


Vahter, Tyyni; ‘Tuukkalan neulakinnas’ in Suomen Muinaismuistoyhdistyken aikakauskirja = Finska fornminnesfeoreningens tidskrift, Vol. 40; Helsinki : Yhdistys; 1934. pgs. 236-243.


Vajanto, Krista. "Nålbinding in Prehistoric Burials – Reinterpreting Finnish 11th–14th-century AD Textile Fragments." in Sounds Like Theory. XII Nordic Theoretical Archaeology Group Meeting in Oulu 25.–28.4.2012. Monographs of the Archaeological Society of Finland 2, edited by Janne Ikäheimo, Anna-Kaisa Salmi & Tiina Äikäs, pgs. 21–33. The Archaeological Society of Finland, 2014.

English; Stable URL: Accessed June 21, 2019. ISBN 978-952-67594-7-0 (PDF), ISBN 978-952-67594-6-3 (hardback)

Van Strydonck, Mark, Antoine De Moor, and Dominique Bénazeth. "Carbon Dating compared to Art Historical Dating of Roman and Coptic Textiles from Egypt." RADIOCARBON, Vol 46, no. 1: pgs. 231–244. Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona, 2004.

English; Also at Accessed May 25, 2019.

Vuori, Pertti; Tulentallojain tarinoita II; Joutsenon kotiseutuyhdistyksen julkaisu n:o 2; Joutsenolainen kotiseutulukemisto 1720-luvulta 1860-luvulle; Lappeenranta; 1981; ISSN 0357-914X; ISBN 951-99339-2-1.


Walton Rogers, Penelope; Textile Production at 16-22 Coopergate; The Archaeology of York; Volume 17: The Small Finds; Fasc. 11; Council for British Archaeology (for the York Archaeological Trust), Dorchester, Dorset, UK, 1997; ISBN 1-872414-76-1.


Walton, Penelope; ‘Textile Production at Coppergate, York: Anglo-Saxon or Viking?’ in Textiles in Northern Archaeology, Textile Symposium in York, North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles Monograph 3, NESAT III; London Archetype Publications, 1990; ISBN 1-873132-05-0.


Walton, Penelope; Textiles, Cordage and Raw Fiber from 16-22 Coppergate; The Archaeology of York; Volume 17: The Small Finds; Fasc. 5; Council for British Archaeology (for the York Archaeological Trust), Dorchester, Dorset, UK, 1989; ISBN 0-906780-79-9.


Welsby, Derek A., and Charles M. Daniels. Soba: Archaeological Research at a Medieval Capital on the Blue Nile. London: British Institute in Eastern Africa, 1991. ISBN: 1872566022.

English; Pages 305-307 contain the information regarding the three small fragments (one with shaping) possibly of a hat. States due to fragility could not determine technique used. The drawings indicate a crossed knit structure.

Westman, Berit; ‘Att ’söma’ och sy nålvantar’ in Hemslöjden, 1985/5; pgs. 10-12.


Westman, Berit; Nålbindning; Firma Tumvanten; Tryckt hos Affärs-Tryckeriet AB; Västerås, 1995; ISBN 91-970550-3-4.


Westman, Berit; Nålbindning; 12 varianter; Andersson & Kagardt, Västerås, 1983; ISBN 91-970550-0-X.


Westman, Berit. "Nålbindning i Västmanlands län" in Västmanlands fornminnesförening och Västmanlands läns museum årsskrift, 1986; pgs. 54-60.


Wild, John Peter; Textiles in Archaeology; Shire Archaeology 56; Shire Publications Ltd., Aylesbury, UK, 1988; pgs. 49-53; ISBN 0-85263-931-7.


Wilfong, Terry G., and Andrew W. S. Ferrara, ed. Karanis Revealed: Discovering the Past and Present of a Michigan Excavation in Egypt. Ann Arbor: Kelsey Museum of Archaeology, 2014. ISBN 9780974187396.

English; Interesting information on the Karanis excavations themselves. Brief catalog mention of one sock fragment. Includes size, dating, and field number.

Xin, Xiaoyu. "Research on Prehistoric Hats in Xinjiang (2000 BC-200 BC)" Asian Social Science Vol. 11, No. 7. Canadian Center of Science and Education 2015. ISSN 1911-2017 E-ISSN 1911-2025. Accessed June 3, 2019.

English; The article includes information on the Tarim beret (blanket stitch) and the witch's hat (Loop & Twist and Blanket stitch). The article refers to these hats as "knitted" which is not the only evidence of translation issues inherent from Chinese to English.

Yarza Luaces, Joaquin ed. Vestiduras ricas: el Monasterio de las Huelgas y su época, 1170-1340: [exposition] del 16 de marzo al 19 de junio de 2005, Palacio Real de Madrid. [Madrid]: Patrimonio Nacional, 2005. pgs. 193-194 ISBN 87-7120-383-9.

Spanish; Catalog entry 30 describes the glove of Bishop San Ramon del Monte. Includes an image.

Žabkar, Louis V. and Joan J. Žabkar. "Semna South. A Preliminary Report on the 1966-68 Excavations of the University of Chicago Oriental Institute Expedition to Sudanese Nubia" in Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, Vol. 19 (1982), pp. 7-50. Published by: American Research Center in Egypt DOI: 10.2307/40000432 Accessed January 2, 2020.

English; Excavation report. Provides brief one line mention of 'a pair of heavy blue woolen "socks" with yellow hems...'

Last major update 2004. Minor updates and additions March 24, 2019 through January 2, 2020. Additions and minor updates in late July 2020.

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